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[en] The molecular geometric and electronic structures of 2,3-benzodiazepine derivates have been studied by means of the MNDO-PM3 method. A number of electronic properties have been computed and examined in order to find indication of the role of the electronic characteristics of the different molecules and their pharmacological properties. Theoretical data indicate that both electronic and structural properties appear responsible for the varying degree of anticonvulsant activity exhibited by compounds 1-4
[en] Objectives: Patients poisoned with opioids sometimes need endotracheal intubation with or without the use of mechanical ventilation. This study was done to determine the prognostic risk factors for of the need for endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Methodology: In this cross-sectional study which was performed in Isfahan (Iran), one hundred (n=100) opioid poisoned patients whom their overdoses were diagnosed by their full and reliable history, physical examination and positive response to naloxone; vital signs at the hospital admission, blood biochemistry, ABG details and also the type and estimated dosage of opioid, route of consumption, and their need to mechanical ventilation were evaluated. Results: Patients were mostly aged between 20-40 years old. Seventy nine patients were male and 26 cases (21 men) required endotracheal intubation and 15 cases (14 men) needed both intubation and mechanical ventilation. The most consumed opiates among the poisoned patients were opium (35%), heroin (16%), Tramadol (15%), Methadone (9%), crack (6%), Diphenoxylate (4%) and others (15%). There was a significant difference between the mean heart rates and respiratory rate of the patients who were connected to the ventilator and others (99.8 +- 21.8 and 87.3 +- 16.3; p=0.01). The lower level of consciousness [OR: 2.2 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.2-4.2], and lower admission level of hemoglobin (OR: 3.6; CI:1.2-10.8) were among the factors for predicting the need for intubation and ventilation. Conclusion: Determining the risk factors with prognostic value for the need to intubation or ventilation seems to be necessary for improving the standard of therapy in opioids poisoned patients. (author)
[en] Different anaesthetic induction and maintenance protocols were used in 2 adult ostriches and 3 juvenile ostriches. After the intramuscolar (im) administration of an induction agent, like ketamine or tiletamine/zolazepam, general anaesthesia in 4 cases was maintained with isoflurane or halothane. General anaesthesia for radiological examinations was also performed with metedomidine/ketamine im
[it]Sono stati utilizzati due protocolli di induzione e mantenimento anestetico in struzzi, due esemplari adulti e 3 giovani. Dopo la somministazione intramuscolare di un agente di induzione, come ketamina o tiletamina/zolazepam, l'anestesia generale in 4 casi e' stata mantenuta con isoflurano o alotano. L'anestesia generale per gli esami radiologici e' stata realizzata anche con metedomidina/ketamina intramuscolo
[en] The risk-benefit relationship of the spinal opioids was determined in outpatients. The pharmacological action of spinal opioids commonly used was described. Adverse effects of spinal opioids such as: respiratory depression, pruritus, nausea and vomiting, and acute urinary retention were characterized. The prolonged time of post-surgical analgesia with the addition of spinal opioids was determined. The prolongation of the motor blockade with respect to the use of the local anesthetic was analyzed
[es]La relacion riesgo-beneficio del uso de opioides espinales fue determinado en pacientes ambulatorios. La accion farmacologica de los opioides espinales usados comunmente fue descrita. Los efectos adversos de los opioides espinales como: depresion respiratoria, prurito, nauseas y vomitos, y retencion aguda de orina fueron caracterizados. El tiempo prolongado de la analgesia post-quirurgica con la adicion de opioides espinales fue determinado. La prolongacion del bloqueo motor con respecto al uso del anestesico local fue analizado
[en] As a part of our program to discover novel analogue of 7-azaindole (1H-Pyrrolo (2,3-b) pyridine) having useful biological activities, some derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their anti-anaphylactic activity. The synthesized compounds 6A and 8A showed significant activity. Other compounds exhibited negative results. In the bio-screening of the compounds for anti-anaphylactic inhibition. Compounds 6A and 8A (ethyl phenacyl derivative) were found most active. Compounds A1-A5 and A7 containing different groups displayed no inhibition. The result indicates that methyl substitution in phenacyl chain at different position (C-1' for compound 6A and C-2' for compound 8A) is making significant change in the activity. (author)
[en] We evaluated the analgesic efficacy and safety of tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg combination tablet, for the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. This study was conducted at Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan from January 2006 to February 2007. The single-center and open-label study enrolled 59 opioid-treated cancer patients with at least moderate breakthrough pain (visual analog scale [VAS] score >/=40mm on a 100-mm scale). The efficacy measures included VAS scores and adverse effect assessment 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the administration of tramadol/acetaminophen. Visual analog scale score at time of pain relief was reported. The mean VAS score when the breakthrough pain episode began (0 minute) was 77.8. Analysis showed significant better mean pain VAS scores at 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the administration of tramadol/acetaminophen (p Tramadol/acetaminophen might be efficacious and safe in the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer (Author).
[en] Purpose: To determine whether Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a radiation protector and/or mitigator. Materials and methods: Murine hematopoietic progenitor 32D cl 3 cells were incubated in 1, 10, or 100 μM CBZ 1 h before or immediately after 0–8 Gy irradiation and assayed for clonogenic survival. Autophagy was assayed by immunoblot for microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3). In vivo radioprotection and mitigation were determined with C57BL/6NTac mice. Results: CBZ treatment at 1, 10 or 100 μM for 1 h prior to irradiation increased radioresistance (the dose for 37% survival or D0) from control 1.5 ± 0.1 Gy to 2.1 ± 0.2 Gy (P = 0.012), 2.3 ± 0.1 Gy (P = 0.010), and 3.6 ± 0.7 Gy (P = 0.003), respectively; after irradiation increased the extrapolation number (ñ) from 1.5 ± 0.3 to 10.1 ± 4.2 (P = 0.011), 5.5 ± 1.7 (P = 0.019), and 3.6 ± 0.8 (P = 0.014), respectively, and increased autophagy. CBZ treated mice 10 min or 24 h before or 10 min or 12 h after 9.25 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) showed increased survival (P = 0.012, 0.011, 0.0002, and 0.017, respectively). Conclusion: CBZ may be a useful radiation protector and mitigator. (authors)
[en] Radiologic inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is the preferred method in our institution for enteral feeding in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Skin-level primary-placed mushroom cage gastrostomy tubes become tight with weight gain. We describe a minimally invasive radiologic technique for replacing mushroom gastrostomy tubes with endoscopic mushroom cage tubes in ALS. All patients with ALS who underwent replacement of a RIG tube were included. Patients were selected for a modified replacement when the tube length of the primary placed RIG tube was insufficient to allow like-for-like replacement. Replacement was performed under local anesthetic and fluoroscopic guidance according to a preset technique, with modification of an endoscopic mushroom cage gastrostomy tube to allow percutaneous placement. Assessment of the success, safety, and durability of the modified technique was undertaken. Over a 60-month period, 104 primary placement mushroom cage tubes in ALS were performed. A total of 20 (19.2%) of 104 patients had a replacement tube positioned, 10 (9.6%) of 104 with the modified technique (male n = 4, female n = 6, mean age 65.5 years, range 48-85 years). All tubes were successfully replaced using this modified technique, with two minor complications (superficial wound infection and minor hemorrhage). The mean length of time of tube durability was 158.5 days (range 6-471 days), with all but one patient dying with a functional tube in place. We have devised a modification to allow percutaneous replacement of mushroom cage gastrostomy feeding tubes with minimal compromise to ALS patients. This technique allows tube replacement under local anesthetic, without the need for sedation, an important consideration in ALS.