Results 1 - 10 of 83
Results 1 - 10 of 83. Search took: 0.026 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] There is much discussion regarding the potential for renewables-based distributed energy resources (DER) to be the low-cost low-emission supply alternative to fossil fuels and the basis for a 100% renewables future. Others feel that nuclear must play a significant role in achieving global emission reductions. Two solutions are examined for meeting incremental daytime demand in a system with an established clean baseload supply: (1) integrated community-scale solar and storage DER; and (2) small modular reactor (SMR) supplied distributed energy storage (DES) where the storage is installed at the community scale. This study finds that, despite expected declines, the cost of solar-based DER will remain high due to intermittency, potentially 70% more than the cost of a SMR-supplied DES option. In geographies where sunshine is less frequent and wind blows less steadily, SMRs will be the lowest-cost low-emission option and offer greater distribution and transmission capacity benefits compared to renewables. (author)
[en] The carbon neutrality will be reached when the national emissions of greenhouse gases equal the amount of greenhouse gases absorbed naturally by the environment and also by man-designed capture systems. The power consumption has stabilized for a few years in France but is expected to grow again because of the massive reduction of carbon intensity of transport. Furthermore, several european countries have decided to decommission coal-fueled power plants by 2040 which corresponds to 110 GW to compensate. Carbon-neutrality policies should not increase the risk of power supply in the European Union. The construction of pairs of EPR-2, the new generation of EPR reactors benefiting from the feedback experience of the construction of 6 EPR, might be the solution unless the decision to build them is too delayed. (A.C.)
[en] This report provides a practical action plan and investment guide for policy makers and investors, to help stimulate economic transition at the speed and scale needed to avoid the worst effects of climate change. With its 55 actionable recommendations for financial support, it targets the utilization of the European Commission's Euro 750 billion recovery fund, and other innovation funding vehicles, to transform Europe's economy and set it on course for climate neutrality by 2050. This report investigates and analyzes existing and future technologies across five core economic domains: energy, building and construction, transportation, food and land use. Capgemini Invent worked with over 100 eminent innovators, entrepreneurs, corporate strategists and policy makers, to identify the 55 high impact climate technologies most likely to deliver transformational results, at speed and scale. These 55 quests provide a balanced mix to energize and engage all areas of the European economy and regions. More than 200 individual projects were examined, each with differing levels of technological maturity, to assess their transformational potential and readiness for investment support and the resulting 55 choices have impacts in the five sectors summarised below. The building sector is one of the most significant sources of CO2e emissions in Europe. 28 billion square meters of floor space generates 1,100 MtCO2e (600 MtCO2e direct emissions, 500 MtCO2e for electricity) that must be cut down over 80% to just 200 MtCO2e by 2050. Of this, 430 MtCO2e in direct emissions come from Europe's 20 billion square meters of residential space. Our Building report looks at how automating and streamlining construction processes to deep renovation can help accelerate our delivery of net-zero emissions. Using fossil fuels has major drawbacks, not least that their combustion emits greenhouse gases. Also a considerable portion of energy is wasted, mostly heat in combustion processes, power plants and due to high-temperatures. Our Energy report looks at the solutions and projects to scale up towards the net-zero target, from new generation solar modules and bifacial panels to large-scale hydrogen production and combined solar generation, storage, and grid. Our report looks at the key challenges and the recommended technologies and projects to reducing the environmental impact of the whole agricultural value chain from farm to fork to cut down emissions by 20% in 2030 and 50% in 2050 to boost systemic change to reach net - zero emissions. Achieving a low carbon industry is of paramount importance, not only to reach the 2050 carbon neutrality target, but also to allow economic growth for EU companies and workers. Our report focuses on solutions for the steel and cement industries, responsible for 30% of emissions. Transportation in its many forms currently produces over 1,200 MtCO2e per year, 30% of total emissions in the EU. Liquid fossil fuels drive most air, marine, road and rail movements. Our Transport report looks at solutions for clean alternatives, supported by giga-scale battery and charging infrastructure from scaling up green c-liquid fuel production for aviation and long distance shipping to ammonia fueled vessels.
[en] This publication first proposes two contributions which respectively addressed the construction of a decarbonized electric power system which requires huge investments to be funded on the long term at affordable costs, and the various options for a European energy policy which would be climate-friendly, competitive and solidarity-based. Then, it reports the contributions and debates of a first round table during which electric utilities presented their projects and evoked questions about the efficiency of the European framework and financial system for their funding. A second round table discussed and debated the answer of the public and private financial sector to operators, and also addressed risks and opportunities of investments on the European market. The third round table was the occasion of presentations and of a debate about the answer of institutional actors to propose an efficient market framework.
[en] This publication proposes a synthesis of a World Energy Congress which discusses the different meanings accessibility to energy can have in different country regarding basic energy services, economic growth and the struggle against energy poverty. It outlines that there is no unique solution to the problem of accessibility, but multiple, adaptable and complementary solutions. The importance of the mobilization of all energies and of energy efficiency for energy transition is outlined. This evolution should mean more electric power and less carbon. The authors also noticed the problematic relationship between technical feasibility and social acceptance, and that the pace of energy transition fundamentally depends on political decisions.
[en] Over the past years, Costa Rica has become one of the most important advocates for the environment in Latin America. However, the reality of the country is far from its expectations when it comes to meeting its 2021 Carbon Neutrality Goal. Among the obstacles that hinder the achievement of this objective is coffee farming, which is one of the most important and, at the same time, more polluting economic activities of the nation. Given this situation, Costa Rica has proposed to implement a series of sectorial NAMAs in order to reduce GHG emissions and contribute to the nation's environmental development. Hence, NAMA Café is born: a series of mitigation actions that seek to reduce emissions in the coffee sector and ultimately contribute to the achievement of the Goal. (author)
[en] The strategy to reduce imported emissions could harness four areas of leverage. The key area of leverage concerns businesses, which need to minimise imported emissions associated with supply chains through consideration of the environmental implications of their actions. The 'consideration' provision in the Action Plan for Business Growth and Transformation (Pacte) Act must be strengthened by leveraging public tendering or through firmer obligations. To support businesses in the decarbonization of their supply chains, two measures stand out. On the one hand, decarbonization strategies bearing on imported emissions by sector need to be set up, with quantified targets, in conjunction with the stakeholders and grounded in the most ambitious existing initiatives. ese strategies bearing on imported emissions need to be added to the agenda regarding decarbonization strategies for the domestic emissions of sectors, which the Government already announced in its response to the first report of the High Council on Climate (HCC). On the other hand, introducing a 'carbon score', as has already been recommended by the Citizens' Convention on Climate, that is carefully linked with the other environmental indicators, would help to boost competition on environmental quality and strategic product differentiation. The second area of leverage concerns households, who are unable to factor imported emissions into their consumer choices because they do not have access to information about them. Measures targeting consumers must therefore form part of an overall campaign supporting more sustainable lifestyles and greater temperance (which falls outside the scope of this report) and providing information about the climate impact of products through the 'carbon score'. The final two areas of leverage concern France's diplomatic action with the EU and beyond, which must lead to a reduction in imported emissions. At European level, France must push for an assessment of the impact that European policies, free-trade agreements in particular - such as the one being negotiated with South American economic bloc Mercosur - have on the carbon footprint and imported emissions. is assessment should include the impact on imported deforestation. Moreover, border carbon adjustments aim at re-balancing the competitiveness of European businesses relative to that of their trade partners who may not have an ambitious climate policy. is scheme could end up impacting imported emissions if it increases the price of certain GHG-intensive imported products. The order of magnitude of such effects on competitiveness and on the distribution of costs between EU households, on the one hand, and between partner countries and the EU, on the other, still needs to be determined however, as they depend on detailed implementation arrangements. Outside the EU, France's priorities regarding its action abroad must include the scaling up of international pledges under the Paris Agreement. Finally, implementation of the national strategy against imported deforestation must pick up pace and be accompanied by measurable targets.
[fr]a 11,5 tonnes de CO2-equivalent par habitant, l'empreinte carbone de la France, composee des emissions importees et des emissions de la production interieure hors exportations, est environ 70% plus elevee que ses emissions territoriales couvertes par ses engagements climatiques actuels. L'empreinte carbone peut etre maitrisee car elle est, pour plus des trois-quarts, liee aux decisions des entreprises et des menages sur le territoire francais. C'est le constat du dernier rapport du Haut conseil pour le climat 'Maitriser l'empreinte carbone de la France', en reponse a une saisine du gouvernement. La contribution de la France au rechauffement climatique ne se limite pas aux emissions de gaz a effet de serre produites sur son territoire - 6,7 t eqCO2 par habitant - mais inclut aussi celles produites par ses echanges internationaux: transports, emissions exportees et emissions importees. Ce rapport se penche sur la methodologie, les causes et les strategies a mettre en place pour mieux determiner mais aussi maitriser l'empreinte carbone des produits importes en France. Alors que les emissions importees augmentent fortement, il est possible de les maitriser et ainsi d'accelerer la reduction de l'empreinte carbone amorcee en 2005. La strategie de reduction des emissions importees peut s'appuyer sur quatre leviers: - Les entreprises doivent etre accompagnees pour mieux prendre en compte les emissions de leur chaine d'approvisionnement, alors que la moitie de l'empreinte carbone est importee, principalement de l'Union europeenne (Allemagne en tete) et d'Asie (Chine en tete). La decarbonation par filiere doit s'accompagner d'un score carbone sur les produits, articule avec les autres indicateurs environnementaux. - Alors que 86% des Francais aimeraient que la consommation prenne moins de place dans la societe, l'offre faite aux menages doit etre mieux informee concernant l'impact climat des biens et services, notamment par la mise en place d'un score carbone. - La politique commerciale de la France dependant de l'Union europeenne, les considerations climatiques doivent etre rehaussees dans les accords commerciaux de l'UE. La mise en place d'un ajustement carbone aux frontieres contribuerait a soutenir les efforts de decarbonation des entreprises europeennes, a condition qu'il soit concu et suivi pour en maximiser les effets sur les emissions et en minimiser les impacts. - Enfin, la France doit orienter l'ensemble de sa cooperation internationale vers le renforcement des engagements dans le cadre de l'accord de Paris, car les emissions importees de la France dependent en premier lieu du profil d'emissions des pays avec qui elle echange. D'autre part, il est essentiel d'accelerer la mise en oeuvre de la strategie nationale de lutte contre la deforestation importee, qui contribue au rechauffement climatique sans etre pris en compte dans l'empreinte carbone, fragilisant les puits de carbone et la biodiversite. Son action doit etre mieux suivie et evaluee sur la base d'indicateurs adequats. La loi energie-climat indique que le gouvernement doit stipuler un plafond indicatif des emissions de gaz a effets de serre pour l'empreinte carbone et pour les emissions des transports internationaux des 2022. Le plafond indicatif de l'empreinte carbone peut etre fixe suivant une trajectoire coherente avec les engagements internationaux de la France d'atteindre l'objectif de neutralite carbone d'ici 2050. Un objectif de reduction des emissions importees d'au moins 65% d'ici a 2050 et de l'empreinte carbone de 80% par rapport a 2005 permettrait de limiter le rechauffement planetaire a 1,5 deg. C, et permettrait a la France d'affirmer son leadership mondial. Les emissions de transports internationaux aeriens et maritimes, doivent aussi disposer d'une strategie specifique et etre incluses dans l'objectif de neutralite carbone de la France, comme l'avait recommande le Haut conseil pour le climat dans son rapport annuel 2019. Des avancees methodologiques sont proposees pour ameliorer les estimations et le suivi de l'empreinte carbone, prerequis indispensable pour maitriser son evolution.
[en] The 2019 Edition of I4CE's Landscape of Climate Finance provides an overview of the investments made by governments, households and businesses in support of the French government's climate-related objectives. The 2019 edition of the Landscape reveals that climate investments exceeded 45 billion euros in 2018 in France. These investments were made by households, public authorities and companies in sectors such as construction, renewable energies and sustainable mobility. The energy transition now accounts for one-twelfth of the country's total annual investments. The trend observed since 2014 is confirmed: climate investments are increasing. This increase has even accelerated since 2017, in a context of exceptionally low interest rates and rising fossil fuel and carbon prices. The draft French National Low-Carbon Strategy (SNBC) and Multi-Year Energy Program (PPE) released in 2018 and 2019 set a new path for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, by the end of the five-year period (2019-2023), an additional Euros15-18 billion of investment must be mobilised per year to meet the investment trajectory needed to achieve the second carbon budget (2019-2023). Furthermore, it will not be enough to make new sources of financing available: to trigger these investments, their profitability and applicable national regulation are both crucial. Investments will mainly have to increase in housing renovation, low-carbon vehicles, renewable energies, public transport and cycling infrastructure. In the rail network and the construction of efficient housing, the challenge will be to maintain current investment levels. Public authorities - State, local authorities, public financial institutions - are increasingly involved in financing climate investments and will need to do more in the future. If the current financing model remains unchanged, government authorities will have to mobilize an additional $7-9 billion per year by 2023. At the same time, achieving carbon neutrality means stopping investments lock us into continued high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. In France, climate-adverse fossil fuel investments exceeded 67 billion in 2018. Theses were concentrated in transport, mainly concerning passenger vehicles: emissions per kilometre increased in 2018 due to the increase in sales of petrol vehicles and SUVs. In 2018, for every low-carbon car sold, more than 40 cars with high CO2 emissions were put into service
[en] The author first comments the different constraints of intermittent energies: physical constraints (rather important footprint, cost of materials) and economic constrains (production cost, decrease of the production value, differences of climatic situations and needs). These constraints could be a burden for a large scale development of renewable energies, and may lead countries to keep some interest in nuclear energy. This means that they will have to overcome the economic disadvantages of nuclear energy. The author shows that it could be possible in the case of emerging economies, but that these disadvantages are still difficult to overcome for advanced economies
[en] This publication describes how hydrogen can be a vector of innovation for low carbon technologies, how it can be a flexibility factor for energy systems, as it contributes to a decarbonization of energy consumptions and uses, while creating relationships between the gas and electricity sectors. It highlights how hydrogen is a field for innovation, for a better competitiveness, and a stake in the struggle against climate change. Then, it presents different examples of the use of hydrogen (as they are developed by ABB): electrification of hydrogen production, integration of hydrogen into electric power grids, development of a zero-emission mobility, installation and operation of hydrogen charging stations, hydrogen at the service of chemistry and of process industries, deployment of a comprehensive hydrogen logistics, and development of power-to-gas