Results 1 - 10 of 2068
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[en] Coastline is an environmental place with assets as recreational and productive value. Monitoring of State is necessary for management of reactions to human action, extreme storms or climate change needs indicators as instruments for measuring evolution. Indicators need to be simple, easy to gauge and to make public, so as to be used in Agendas 21 or human development sustain ability.geologic couches associated to storm high energy and rocks visible s in beaches can be used as indicators. Playa Ramirez, near the center city, shows a high energy couch e mostly linked to a great storm in August 2005 and gneiss rocks from Montevideo formation more o less covered with sand responding to storms and currents transport balance. Both can be indicators integrating storms and currents effects useful for monitoring specific systems, which are to be identified in each part of the coast. (author)
[en] Ka and Ku bands links for shore-ship communications suffer limited bandwidth and high loss. In this paper, photonics-based links are proposed and modeled. The principle of phase modulation (PM) is elaborated and analyzed. It is showed that PM can effectively suppress high-order inter-modulation distortion (IMD), reduce the insert loss and improve the reliability of the system. (paper)
[en] The way in which sediment relocation and tilling (or aeration) treatment techniques accelerate the removal of oil from beaches was discussed. Examples of applications of the techniques on recent spills were reviewed. Both techniques basically accelerate the two natural cleaning processes of physical abrasion and oil fines interaction. The issue of where and when the techniques should be used or avoided was also discussed. The techniques can be applied to oiled sediments in or above the tidal zone. They can also be used on oil that has penetrated into subsurface sediments or has been buried. The problem is that these in situ techniques are underused, hence their application is limited because of the lack of experience or knowledge and understanding on the part of the decision makers. The rate of accelerated cleaning is a function of the amount and type of oil spilled and of the naturally occurring rates of abrasion and oil-fines interaction on the beach. 33 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs
[en] Restinga formations grow on sandy spits of coastal plains, an environment whose conditions limit the growth and development of vegetal species. Studies on restinga gradients are good examples of how plants acclimate to restrictive environments. This work compares three woody species co-occurring in four vegetations of a restinga from Southern Brazil. It pinpoints morpho-anatomical attributes that favor the survival of species faced with spatial variability of soil and light conditions. Results indicate that they respond differently to environmental variables on different scales. The plastic response of morphological attributes is more marked than that of anatomical ones. Varronia curassavica and Dodonaea viscosa showed more xeromorphic features on the more stressful restinga formations while Symphyopappus casarettoi varied between xerophyte to mesophyte forms along the gradient. Individual height, fresh and dry leaf masses, leaf area, specific leaf mass and area, leaf density, and water content are particularly noteworthy. These responses are strategies allowing the studied species to survive in restinga environment with highly variable soil nutrient, water availability, and light conditions. The environmental conditions are important features that modulate de plant morphology along the gradient.
[en] This study is conducted on the usage of remote sensing images from several different years in order to analyze the changes of shoreline and land cover of the area. Remote sensing images used in this study are the data captured by the Landsat satellite. The images are projecting the land surface in 30 by 30 meter resolution and it is processed by the ENVI software. ENVI is able to change each digital number of the pixels on the images into specific value according to the applied model for classification in which could be used as an approach in calculating the area different classes based from the images itself. Therefore, using this method, the changes on the coastal area are possible to be determined. Analysis of the shoreline and land reclamation around the coastal area is integrated with the land use changes to determine its impact. The study shows that Batu Pahat area might have undergone land reclamation whereas in Pasir Gudang is experiencing substantial amount of erosion. Besides, the changes of land use in both areas were considered to be rapid and due to the results obtained from this study, the issues may be brought about for the local authority awareness action. (paper)
[en] This presentation analyzed a range of issues and sources of potential problems associated with the use of digital photographs and short videos in a spill response system. Digital cameras are used regularly during field surveys, providing images of various aspects of oil conditions, as well as physical, ecological and operational constraints along impacted shorelines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the methods of procedures which could be used to ensure that digital photographs could be safely used and applied in a spill response. A set of guidelines were developed that should guarantee that visual digital information collected by field personal during a response to a spill can be well secured, documented and usable for legal purposes. The information that should be included with digital images associated in an oiled shoreline database include date, location, direction, subject, name of surveyor, file name and file type. An image description form was developed for completion by field surveyors. The form will be integrated within a spill management system. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig
[en] The typhoon wind hazard along the southeast coast of China impacted by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is investigated using an improved statistical dynamics track model of tropical cyclones. Three types of years (El Niño/La Niña/Neutral) during ENSO cycles are confirmed on the basis of Niño 3.4 index averaged from July to October. It is found that the tropical cyclone genesis positions and tracks varied significantly in the three types of years, which turns to influence the passing rates and extreme wind speeds in the coastal areas of southeast China. During El Niño years, the passing rates and extreme wind speeds are lower than the other two types of years obviously. Moreover, the impact of ENSO on typhoon wind hazard of southeast China in different time horizons is examined by considering the variation of frequencies of the three types of years in different time windows. The interannual passing rates and extreme wind speeds vary remarkably; however, the multi-decadal remains more or less unchanged. This suggests that it is worthy of consideration of the variation of typhoon wind hazard posed by ENSO in interannual horizon or return period, while less or not for that of the wind hazard in multi-decadal horizon.
[en] Highlights: • Vacation property renters surveyed would not pay more to view an offshore wind farm. • Renters react more negatively to turbines when nighttime visualizations are shown. • 55% would not re-rent their vacation home if there are any visible turbines. • 20% would re-rent without a discount if turbines are 8 or more miles from shore. • Turbines 5 miles from shore could cause a rental price reduction of 5%. - Abstract: We conduct a choice-experiment with individuals that recently rented a vacation property along the North Carolina coastline to assess the impacts of a utility-scale wind farm on their rental decisions. Visualizations were presented to survey respondents that varied both the number of turbines and their proximity to shore. Results indicate that there is not a scenario for which respondents would be willing to pay more to rent a home with turbines in view, as compared to the baseline view with no turbines in sight. Further, there is a substantial portion of the survey population that would change their vacation destination if wind farms were placed within visual range of the beach. The rental discounts required to attract the segment of the survey population most amenable to viewing wind farms still indicate that rental value losses of up to 10% are possible if a utility-scale wind farm is placed within 8 miles of shore.
[en] Radiation Oncology Practice Standards have been developed over the last 10 years and were published for use in Australia in 2011. Although the majority of the radiation oncology community supports the implementation of the standards, there has been no mechanism for uniform assessment or governance. North Coast Cancer Institute's public radiation oncology service is provided across three main service centres on the north coast of NSW. With a strong focus on quality management, we embraced the opportunity to demonstrate conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards. The Local Health District's Clinical Governance units were engaged to perform assessments of our conformity with the standards and this was signed off as complete on 16 December 2013. The process of demonstrating conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards has enhanced the culture of quality in our centres. We have demonstrated that self-assessment utilising trained auditors is a viable method for centres to demonstrate conformity. National implementation of the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards will benefit individual centres and the broader radiation oncology community to improve the service delivered to our patients