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[en] Zhang et al. propose to redefine the true γ-ray burst (GRB) central engine activity duration, , by considering the contributions from the prompt γ-ray emission, X-ray flare, and internal plateau features. With a comprehensive study of a large sample of Swift GRBs, it is shown that the distribution in the observer frame consists of a bimodal feature, suggesting the existence of a new population of ultra-long GRBs. In this work, we make a series of further studies on : we update the Swift GRB sample up to 2016 June; we investigate the properties of distribution in the rest frame; we redefine by involving external plateau contributions; and we make a multiple parameter analysis to investigate whether the bursts within the ultra-long population are statistically different in the sense of other features besides the duration distribution. We find that for all situations, the distribution of requires two normal distributions in logarithmic space to provide a good fit both in the observer frame and in the rest frame. Considering the observational gap effect would not completely erase the bimodal distribution feature. However, the bursts within the ultra-long population may have no statistical difference in the sense of other features besides the duration term. We thus suggest that if the ultra-long population of GRBs indeed exists, their central engine and radiation mechanisms should be similar to those of the normal population, but they have a longer central engine activity timescale.
[en] We present broadband (radio, optical, and X-ray) light curves and spectra of the afterglows of four long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; GRBs 090323, 090328, 090902B, and 090926A) detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope (LAT) instruments on the Fermi satellite. With its wide spectral bandpass, extending to GeV energies, Fermi is sensitive to GRBs with very large isotropic energy releases (1054 erg). Although rare, these events are particularly important for testing GRB central-engine models. When combined with spectroscopic redshifts, our afterglow data for these four events are able to constrain jet collimation angles, the density structure of the circumburst medium, and both the true radiated energy release and the kinetic energy of the outflows. In agreement with our earlier work, we find that the relativistic energy budget of at least one of these events (GRB 090926A) exceeds the canonical value of 1051 erg by an order of magnitude. Such energies pose a severe challenge for models in which the GRB is powered by a magnetar or a neutrino-driven collapsar, but remain compatible with theoretical expectations for magnetohydrodynamical collapsar models (e.g., the Blandford-Znajek mechanism). Our jet opening angles (θ) are similar to those found for pre-Fermi GRBs, but the large initial Lorentz factors (Γ0) inferred from the detection of GeV photons imply θΓ0 ∼ 70-90, values which are above those predicted in magnetohydrodynamic models of jet acceleration. Finally, we find that these Fermi-LAT events preferentially occur in a low-density circumburst environment, and we speculate that this might result from the lower mass-loss rates of their lower-metallicity progenitor stars. Future studies of Fermi-LAT afterglows at radio wavelengths with the order-of-magnitude improvement in sensitivity offered by the Extended Very Large Array should definitively establish the relativistic energy budgets of these events.
[en] In an effort to understand the puzzle of classifying gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), we perform a systematic study of Swift GRBs and investigate several short GRB issues. Though short GRBs have a short (∼< 2 s) prompt duration as monitored by the Burst Alert Telescope, the composite light curves including both the prompt and afterglow emission suggest that most of the short GRBs have a similar radiative feature to long GRBs. Furthermore, some well-studied short GRBs might also have an intrinsically long prompt duration, which renders them as a type of short GRB imposters. Genuine short GRBs detected by Swift might be rare, so determining the observed short GRBs is, not surprisingly, troublesome. In particular, the observational biases in the host identification and redshift measurement of GRBs should be taken with great caution. The redshift distribution, which has been found to be different for long and short GRBs, might have been strongly affected by the measurement methods. We find that the redshifts measured from the presumed host galaxies of long and short GRBs appear to have a similar distribution.
[en] Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most energetic sources in the universe and among the farthest known astrophysical sources. These features make them appealing candidates as standard candles for cosmological applications such that studying the physical mechanisms for the origin of the emission and correlations among their observable properties is an interesting task. We consider here the luminosity L*X and break time T*a (hereafter LT) correlation and investigate whether there are systematics induced by selection effects or redshift-dependent calibration. We perform this analysis both for the full sample of 77 Swift GRBs with known redshift and for the subsample of GRBs having canonical X-ray light curves, hereafter called the U0095 sample. We do not find any systematic bias, thus confirming the existence of physical GRB subclasses revealed by tight correlations of their afterglow properties. Furthermore, we study the possibility of applying the LT correlation as a redshift estimator both for the full distribution and for the canonical light curves. The large uncertainties and the non-negligible intrinsic scatter make the results not so encouraging, but there are nevertheless some hints motivating a further analysis with an increased U0095 sample.
[en] The third and latest interplanetary network for the precise directional analysis of gamma ray bursts consists of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment in Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and instruments on Pioneer-Venus Orbiter and the deep-space mission Ulysses. The unsurpassed resolution of the BATSE instrument, the use of refined analysis techniques, and Ulysses' distance of up to 6 AU all contribute to a potential for greater precision than had been achieved with former networks. Also, the departure of Ulysses from the ecliptic plane in 1992 avoids any positional alignment of the three instruments that would lessen the source directional accuracy
[en] We have investigated the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) pulses with a fast rise and an exponential decay phase, assumed to arise from relativistically expending fireballs, and found that the curvature effect influences the evolutionary curve of the corresponding hardness ratio (hereafter HRC). We find, due to the curvature effect, the evolutionary curve of the pure hardness ratio (when the background count is not included) would peak at the very beginning of the curve, and then would undergo a drop-to-rise-to-decay phase. In the case of the raw hardness ratio (when the background count is included), the curvature effect would give rise to several types of evolutionary curve, depending on the hardness of a burst. For a soft burst, an upside down pulse of its raw HRC would be observed; for a hard burst, its raw HRC shows a pulselike profile with a sinkage in its decaying phase; for a very hard burst, the raw HRC possesses a pulselike profile without a sinkage in its decaying phase. For a pulselike raw HRC as shown in the case of the hard and very hard bursts, its peak would appear in advance of that of the corresponding light curve, which was observed previously in some GRBs. For illustration, we have studied here the HRC of GRB 920216, GRB 920830, and GRB 990816 in detail. The features of the raw HRC expected in the hard burst are observed in these bursts. A fit to the three bursts shows that the curvature effect alone could indeed account for the predicted characteristics of HRCs. In addition, we find that the observed hardness ratio tends to be harder at the beginning of the pulses than what the curvature effect could predict and be softer at the late time of the pulses. We believe this is an evidence showing the existence of intrinsic hard-to-soft radiation which might be due to the acceleration-to-deceleration mode of shocks