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[en] The Energy Consumption Allowance (ECA) has been recognized as an effective analytical methodology and management tool that helps to improve efficiency and performance. With wide distribution and great energy consumption in low efficiency, the mechanical manufacturing industry has considerable energy-saving potential. This paper illustrates the concept and connotation of traditional ECA and has systematically analysed the deficiencies of the traditional ECA in the mechanical manufacturing industry. To overcome the deficiencies in the application process, a new concept of fine energy consumption allowance (FECA) for workpieces has been proposed contributing to strengthening energy monitoring and management and improving energy efficiency in the mechanical manufacturing industry. Based on establishing a framework for the FECA of the workpiece, a method for developing the FECA of the workpiece was proposed including five steps: (i) analysis of energy consumption in the machining process; (ii) establishment of a basic energy consumption database; (iii) determination of time parameters; (iv) determination of the ECA of each procedure and acquirement of the FECA; and (v) application of the fine energy consumption allowance card (FECA-card). Furthermore, a case study illustrates the practicability of the proposed method by establishing a primary FECA for the workpiece in a real machining plant. - Highlights: • Proposed a new concept of Fine Energy Consumption Allowance (FECA) in the mechanical manufacturing industry. • Illustrated the concept and connotation of the traditional ECA, and analysed the deficiencies of the traditional ECA. • Constructed a framework for the FECA of the workpiece. • Developed a method for establishing the FECA of the workpiece.
[en] In industry, barriers may exist at various points in the decision making process, and in the implementation and management of measures to improve energy efficiency. Barriers may take many forms, and are determined by the business environment and include decision-making processes, energy prices, lack of information, a lack of confidence in the information, or high transaction costs for obtaining reliable information, as well as limited capital availability. Other barriers are the ''invisibility'' of energy efficiency measures and the difficulty of quantifying the impacts, and slow diffusion of innovative technology into markets while firms typically under-invest in R and D, despite the high pay-backs. Various programs try to reduce the barriers to improve the uptake of innovative technologies. A wide array of policies has been used and tested in the industrial sector in industrialized countries, with varying success rates. We review some new approaches to industrial energy efficiency improvement in industrialized countries, focusing on voluntary agreements
[en] This second annual report card produced by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance is a means by which to monitor the efforts of Canada's federal, provincial and territorial governments in energy efficiency activities. The Alliance works in partnership with manufacturers, utilities, governments, builders, labour, consumer groups and environmental organizations. Energy efficiency is one of the primary tools governments can use to meet the Kyoto climate change commitment. The issue of climate change was examined in greater depth in this second annual report card. Ten specific measures that each government should take in order to be efficiency leaders were identified. These included minimum standards and regulations for buildings and appliances, supporting energy efficiency in the marketplace, and leadership programs to improve energy efficiency and achieve emission reduction targets. Efficiency in transportation was not included in this report card. A brief summary of what the federal government, as well as each provincial and territorial government are doing to promote energy efficiency was included. Each jurisdiction was given a grade. The Yukon received the highest mark of A minus. Saskatchewan received the lowest, and only failed mark. It was emphasized that public and private utilities also play a key role in supporting energy efficiency in Canada. 2 tabs
[en] In the subtropics, room air conditioners (RACs) have been widely used to maintain an appropriate indoor thermal environment not only at day but also at night for sleeping. However, currently RACs are often sized by rules of thumb that are based on the applications and practices of air conditioning during daytime operating periods. A method of sizing RACs used in sleeping environments has been developed in this paper. The sizing of RACs used in sleeping environments in the subtropics should not be based on the peak load that occurs at the beginning of a night air conditioning process but preferably on 70-80% of the peak load for better indoor thermal comfort and higher energy efficiency
[en] Energy efficiency can boost economic development and competitiveness, maximize capital productivity, improve environmental quality, and guarantee lasting energy security. Each of these benefits is reason enough, but collectively they form an imperative for action. The energy future must be based on cultural development, not the wanton growth that has served as an indicator of success in the past. Energy efficiency provides not only technical fixes, regulatory innovation, and a host of new financing methods, it also provides a template - a model - for a resource-efficiency ethic congruent with the notion of respecting the rights of future citizens. The good news is that the authors now know how to check environmental despoliation caused by an unquenchable thirst for energy resources. Existing energy-efficiency opportunities allow them to redefine the national energy strategy and take account of the environment and the future
[en] This work deals with the load carrying capacity of an induction cage machine under voltage unbalance combined with over- or undervoltage. The effect of complex voltage unbalance factor (CVUF) angle on the derating factor is taken into consideration. The derating curves obtained with two different methods are compared. The machine efficiency, stator currents and temperature-rise distribution after applying the required derating factor are discussed. The results of experimental investigations and computer calculations are presented for two low-power induction motors of opposite properties. One of them has a comparatively weakly saturated magnetic circuit and is especially exposed to the risk of overheating for undervoltage. The other investigated machine has a comparatively strongly saturated magnetic circuit and is especially exposed to overheating in the conditions of overvoltage
[en] Social learning is a prerequisite for sustainable energy use. This paper sets out some considerations from learning theory that offer a useful way of looking at domestic energy awareness and at actions to improve energy efficiency and conserve energy. Findings from a survey of residents of an English village that had won an 'energy-conscious village' competition are used to illustrate how individual and social learning can occur over a period of time, and how a 'top down' initiative may relate to other more informal sources of motivation and information. A model of learning about domestic energy use that incorporates awareness, action and feedback is proposed, and the implications for policy and further research are discussed
[en] Highlights: • Production energy can be saved by optimizing allocation of processes to machines. • Transportation energy can be saved by properly grouping machines in manufacturing cells. • Optimally formed cellular manufacturing system is energy-efficient replacement of job-shop. • 26% of energy is saved in cellular manufacturing system without affecting workload balance. Within the domain of sustainable manufacturing, most of the ongoing research efforts, regarding reduction in energy consumption, are focused on manufacturing processes while a little effort is being made to make other production related efforts energy-efficient. This paper presents an analytical effort for saving energy in a machine shop environment by optimizing assignment of manufacturing processes to various machines and grouping machines in various cells for minimizing parts transportation distance. A nonlinear mathematical model is developed that seeks minimization of total energy consumed in machining various quantities of multiple parts and their transportation within the machine shop. An algorithm based on simulated annealing metaheuristic is developed for solution of the mathematical model. The model is then applied for energy based revamping of a machine shop, which deals in manufacturing of various quantities of multiple jobs. It is found from its application that significant levels of production and transportation energies can be saved by assigning the manufacturing operations to the most appropriate machines and optimally grouping the machines into machine cells, respectively. The paper contributes towards energy conservation by optimizing facility layout and production planning of a manufacturing setup.
[en] Search for high-performance architecture and dreams of future architecture resulted in attempts towards meeting energy efficient architecture and planning in different aspects. Recent trends as a mean to meet future legacy in architecture are based on the idea of innovative technologies for resource efficient buildings, performative design, bio-inspired technologies etc. while there are meaningful differences between architecture of developed and developing countries. Significance of issue might be understood when the emerging cities are found interested in Dubaization and other related booming development doctrines. This paper is to analyze the level of developing countries’ success to achieve smart-eco buildings’ goals and objectives. Emerging cities of West of Asia are selected as case studies of the paper. The results of the paper show that the concept of high-performance architecture and smart-eco buildings are different in developing countries in comparison with developed countries. The paper is to mention five essential issues in order to improve future architecture of developing countries: 1- Integrated Strategies for Energy Efficiency, 2- Contextual Solutions, 3- Embedded and Initial Energy Assessment, 4- Staff and Occupancy Wellbeing, 5- Life-Cycle Monitoring. (paper)
[en] The new view on the energy system is that it delivers energy service to end-users instead of only energy. The new view calls for least-cost solutions with regard also to the use of energy-efficient equipment. These solutions are, however, not realized automatically on the market since this is arranged for delivery of energy instead of energy service. There is a need to invent new ways to organize the market. This could be done with new sets of incentives for the traditional actors, mainly the utilities. A stock-market solution seems to have such qualities. (author)