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[en] This study presents a novel approach to solve the vehicle routing problem by focusing on greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption aiming to mitigate adverse environmental effects of transportation. A time-dependent model with time windows is developed to incorporate speed and schedule in transportation planning. The model considers speed limits for different times of the day in a realistic delivery context. Due to the complexity of solving the model, a graph transformation approach is proposed to reduce the complexity of the problem. By means of several steps, the problem is transformed into a vehicle routing problem without time windows. In this way, we can reduce the complexity of the problem. Our method can be used in practice to decrease fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, while total cost is also controlled to some extent. Finally, future research directions and conclusion remarks are provided.
[en] The views of business on government policy issues relating to greenhouse gas abatement are outlined in this paper. While recognizing the need for Australia to make an effective and equitable contribution to global greenhouse gas abatement, it does not believe that acceptance of the targets and timetables implied in the Climate Change Convention will necessarily lead to Australia making an equitable contribution. The feeling is that Australia should adopt a 'no-regrets' approach in line with other OECD countries. This approach includes micro economic reform policies such as emission reduction in energy transport, land management and sink enhancement. Programs fostering relevant research and development in these areas should be adopted. Business is opposed to any form of carbon tax or environmental levy, or any reduction in the diesel fuel rebate. It is believed that the potential of no-regrets measures will be most effectively achieved through a policy package involving mutually supportive government and industry actions. 1 photo
[en] The U.S. Army operates and maintains the largest trucking fleet in the United States. Its fleet consists of over 246,000 trucks, and it is responsible for buying and developing trucks for all branches of the armed forces. The Army's tactical wheeled vehicle fleet is the logistical backbone of the Army, and annually, the fleet logs about 823 million miles. The fleet consists of a number of types of vehicles. They include eight different families of trucks from the High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicles to M900 series line haul tractors and special bodies. The average age of all the trucks within the Army fleet is 15 years, and very few have more than traditional driving instrumentation on-board. Over the past decade, the Department of Transportation's (DOT's) Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program has conducted research and deployment activities in a number of areas including in-vehicle systems, communication and telematics technologies. Many current model passenger vehicles have demonstrated the assimilation of these technologies to enhance safety and trip quality. Commercial vehicles are also demonstrating many new electronic devices that are assisting in making them safer and more efficient. Moreover, a plethora of new technologies are about to be introduced to drivers that promise greater safety, enhanced efficiency, congestion avoidance, fuel usage reduction, and enhanced trip quality. The U.S. Army has special needs with regard to fleet management, logistics, sustainability, reliability, survivability, and fuel consumption that goes beyond similar requirements within the private industry. In order to effectively apply emerging ITS technologies to the special needs of the U.S. Army, planning for the conduct of the Army's Vehicle Intelligence Program (AVIP) has now commenced. The AVIP will be focused on the conduct of research that: (1) will apply ITS technologies to the special needs of the Army, and (2) will conduct research for special needs wi th regard to vehicle control, driver assistance, integration of vehicle intelligence and robotic technologies, managing effectively the information flow to drivers, enhanced logistics capabilities and sustainability of the Army's fleet during battlefield conditions. This paper will highlight the special needs of the Army, briefly describe two programs, which are embracing ITS technologies to a limited extent, will outline the AVIP, and will provide some insight into future Army vehicle intelligence efforts
[en] Past investigations have shown that the current type-approval test cycles are not representative for real-world vehicle usage. Consequently, the emissions and fuel consumption of the vehicles are underestimated. Therefore, a new cycle is being developed in the UNECE framework (World-harmonised Light-duty Test Procedure, WLTP), aiming at a more dynamic and worldwide harmonised test cycle. To provide recommendations for the new cycle, we have analysed the noxious emission results of a test programme of seven vehicles on the test cycles NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) and CADC (Common Artemis Driving Cycles). This paper presents the results of that analysis to show the zones of the cycle that are causing the highest emissions, using two different approaches. Both approaches show that the zones with the highest emissions of modern vehicles differ from vehicle to vehicle. Consequently, a representative test cycle has to contain as many combinations of vehicle speed and acceleration that occur in real-world traffic as possible to prevent that a vehicle does not perform well for certain combinations because they are not included in the test cycle. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates that it is important to include a cold start to ensure rapid warm up of the catalysts. - Highlights: ► Vehicle emissions on the NEDC and CADC type-approval cycles are analysed. ► The zones within the cycles that produce the highest emissions are investigated. ► It is shown that these zones can differ significantly from one vehicle to another. ► The WLTP cycle should contain as many of the real-world driving zones as possible.
[en] A common assumption in lifecycle assessment (LCA) based estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits (or costs) of renewable fuel such as biofuel is that it simply replaces an energy-equivalent amount of fossil fuel and that total fuel consumption remains unchanged. However, the adoption of renewable fuels will affect the price of fuel and therefore affect total fuel consumption which, may increase or decrease depending on the policy regime and market conditions. Using a representative two-region model of the global oil market in which, one region implements a domestic biofuel mandate and the other does not, we show that the net change in global fuel consumption due to the policy, which we term indirect fuel use change (IFUC), can have a significant impact on the net GHG emissions associated with biofuel. If LCA-based regulations are designed to account for indirect emissions such as indirect land use change, then we argue that IFUC emissions cannot be ignored. Our work also shows how different policies can affect the environmental impact from adopting a given clean technology differently. (author)
[en] In this paper, the energy savings of new technology offering significant improvements in fuel efficiency are tracked for over 20 years as vehicles incorporating that technology enter the fleet and replace conventional light-duty vehicles. Two separate analyses are discussed: a life-cycle analysis of aluminum-intensive vehicles and a fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and greenhouse gas emissions of double vs. triple fuel-economy vehicles. In both efforts, market-penetration modeling is used to simulate the rate at which new technology enters the new fleet, and stock-adjustment modeling is used to capture the inertia in turnover of new and existing current-technology vehicles. Together, these two effects--slowed market penetration and delayed vehicle replacement--increase the time lag between market introduction and the achievement of substantial energy savings. In both cases, 15-20 years elapse, before savings approach these levels
[en] There are many kinds of methods to estimate the energy requirement or fuel consumption in the optimal design and minimize the life cost of a building. The bin method is one of the most popular ways to estimate the energy performance of a building, which is based on the hourly-based outdoor dry-bulb temperatures of all days in a whole year. There is lack of information about the bin weather data in China. In this paper, the ambient temperature bin data for 26 cities in China are generated. Based on the method used in this paper, the bin data can be calculated with the long-term daily weather record or TMY weather data, the deviation between them is acceptable. The bin data given in this paper may have the positive impact on building energy conservation in China
[en] A stable power grid requires a balance between electricity supply and demand. To compensate for changes in the demand the network operator puts on or takes off power plants from the net. Peak load plants operate only at times of high electricity demand. As levels for air pollutants emissions are typically lower for peak load plants for reasons of cost-effectiveness, one could argue that a unit of electric energy consumed during peak load has always been associated with a higher environmental impact than at other times. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies, smart approaches for improving the matching between electricity consumption and supply and new products such as electric vehicles or net zero emission buildings gain in importance. In life cycle assessment (LCA) environmental impacts associated with the production and possibly transmission of electricity are most often assessed based on temporally averaged national electricity mixes as electricity flows cannot be traced back to their origin. Neither fluctuations in the supply structure nor the composition of energy supply at a certain moment or regional differences are accounted for. A literature review of approaches for handling electricity in LCA is carried out to compare strengths and weaknesses of the approaches. A better understanding and knowledge about the source of electricity at a given time and place might be valuable information for further reducing environmental impacts, e.g. by shifting electricity consumption to times with ample supply of renewables. Integrating such information into LCA will allow a fairer assessment of a variety of new products which accept a lower energy efficiency to achieve a better integration of renewables into the grid. (authors)
[en] Highlights: • We conduct a natural field experiment on incentives for fuel-efficient driving. • A monetary and a tangible non-monetary reward for eco-driving are compared. • The non-monetary reward results in an average reduction of fuel consumption of 5%. • There is only a small reduction effect in the equivalent monetary reward treatment. • Emphasis of fun, emotional responses and frequency of recalling might play a role. - Abstract: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is a highly prevalent goal of public policy in many countries around the world. Convincing people to drive more fuel-efficiently (“eco-driving”) can contribute substantially to this goal and is often an integral part of policy initiatives. However, there is a lack of scientific studies on the effects of individual monetary and non-monetary incentives for eco-driving, especially in organizational settings and with regards to demonstrating causality, e.g., by using controlled experiments. We address this gap with a six months long controlled natural field experiment and introduce a monetary and a non-monetary reward for eco-driving to drivers of light commercial vehicles in different branches of a logistics company. Our results show an average reduction of fuel consumption of 5% due to a tangible non-monetary reward and suggest only a small reduction of the average fuel consumption in the equivalent monetary reward treatment. We find indications that more emphasis on the fun of achieving a higher fuel efficiency, a more emotional response to non-monetary incentives, and a higher frequency of thinking and talking about non-monetary incentives might play a role in the stronger effect of the tangible non-monetary reward. Policy implications for private and public actors are discussed.