Results 1 - 10 of 16359
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[en] A brief outline of the Surrogate reaction method, an indirect approach for determining compound-nuclear reaction cross sections, is given. The assumptions introduced in the analysis of a typical Surrogate experiment are discussed and prospects for using the Surrogate method to obtain cross sections relevant to the astrophysical s-process are considered
[en] The existence of planets born in environments highly perturbed by a stellar companion represents a major challenge to the paradigm of planet formation. In numerical simulations, the presence of a close binary companion stirs up the relative velocity between planetesimals, which is fundamental in determining the balance between accretion and erosion. However, the recent discovery of circumbinary planets by Kepler establishes that planet formation in binary systems is clearly viable. We perform N-body simulations of planetesimals embedded in a protoplanetary disk, where planetesimal phasing is frustrated by the presence of stochastic torques, modeling the expected perturbations of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability. We examine perturbation amplitudes relevant to dead zones in the midplane (conducive to planet formation in single stars), and find that planetesimal accretion can be inhibited even in the outer disk (4-10 AU) far from the central binary, a location previously thought to be a plausible starting point for the formation of circumbinary planets.
[en] While the primordial (or Big Bang) nucleosynthesis delivers important clues about the conditions in the high red-shift universe (termed far-field cosmology), the nucleosynthesis of the heavy elements beyond iron by the r-process or the s-process deliver information about the early phase and history of the Galaxy (termed near-field cosmology). In particular, the r-process nucleosynthesis is unique, because it is a primary process that helps to associate individual stars with the composition of the protocloud. The present contribution is intended to give a brief overview about these nucleosynthesis processes and describe their link to the early universe, stellar evolution and to the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. The focus of this present contribution is on illumination the role of nucleosynthesis in the Universe. Owing to the complexity of this subject, a general scenario is more appealing to address interested readers. (paper)
[en] Neutron-capture elements have been detected in several metal-deficient halo stars with metallicity of [Fe/H] ∼ -1.5 - -3.0. These detections have indicated that the observed abundance pattern of heavy neutron-capture elements is very similar to that of the solar r-process elements for the mass region 56 < Z < 70. They have also shown, on the other hand, that the abundance of light neutron capture elements with Z < 56 have a large scattering. In this paper, we discuss the mechanism of this universality of the pattern and the possible way to set restriction on the nuclear mass models by reproducing this observed universality. Moreover, we present a possible explanation of the scattering of light elements abundances
[en] In this paper, I will review the theory behind the gravitational wave (GW) driven r-mode instability in rapidly rotating neutron stars (NSs) and discuss which constraints can be derived from observations of spins and temperatures in low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). I will discuss how a standard, 'minimal' NS model is not consistent with the data, and discuss some of the additional physical mechanisms that could reconcile theory with observations. In particular, I will focus on additional forms of damping due to exotic cores and on strong mutual friction due to superfluid vortices cutting through superconducting flux tubes, and examine the repercussions these effects could have on the saturation amplitude of the mode. Finally I will also discuss the possibility that oscillations due to r-modes may have been recently observed in the X-ray light curves of two LMXBs. (author)
[en] We investigate a sample of three dwarf elliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster that have significant reservoirs of H i. We present deep optical imaging (from CFHT and KPNO), H i spectra (Arecibo), and resolved H i imaging (VLA) of this sample. These observations confirm their H i content and optical morphologies, and indicate that the gas is unlikely to be recently accreted. The sample has more in common with dwarf transitionals, though dwarf transitionals are generally lower in stellar mass and gas fraction. VCC 190 has an H i tidal tail from a recent encounter with the massive spiral galaxy NGC 4224. In VCC 611, blue star-forming features are observed that were not seen by shallower SDSS imaging.
[en] We present an abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra of eight stars selected to span the full range in metallicity in the Draco dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy. We find that [Fe/H] for the sample stars ranges from -1.5 to -3.0 dex. Combining our sample with previously published work for a total of 14 luminous Draco giants, we show that the abundance ratios [Na/Fe], [Mg/Fe], and [Si/Fe] for the Draco giants overlap those of Galactic halo giants at the lowest [Fe/H] probed, but are significantly lower for the higher Fe-metallicity Draco stars. For the explosive α-elements Ca and Ti, the abundance ratios for Draco giants with [Fe/H] > - 2.4 dex are approximately constant and slightly subsolar, well below values characteristic of Galactic halo stars. The s-process contribution to the production of heavy elements begins at significantly lower Fe metallicity than in the Galactic halo. Using a toy model we compare the behavior of the abundance ratios within the sample of Draco giants with those from the literature of Galactic globular clusters, and the Carina and Sgr dSph galaxies. The differences appear to be related to the timescale for buildup of the heavy elements, with Draco having the slowest rate. We note the presence of a Draco giant with [Fe/H] <-3.0 dex in our sample, and reaffirm that the inner Galactic halo could have been formed by early accretion of Galactic satellite galaxies and dissolution of young globular clusters, while the outer halo could have formed from those satellite galaxies accreted later.
[en] We examine the recent star formation associated with four supergiant shells in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC): LMC 1, 4, 5, and 6, which have been shown to have simple expanding-shell structures. H II regions and OB associations are used to infer star formation in the last few Myr, while massive young stellar objects reveal the current ongoing star formation. Distributions of ionized H I and molecular components of the interstellar gas are compared with the sites of recent and current star formation to determine whether triggering has taken place. We find that a great majority of the current star formation has occurred in gravitationally unstable regions, and that evidence of triggered star formation is prevalent at both large and local scales.
[en] Even though the Myers–Perry five dimensional rotating black hole with two rotations could be overspun by test particle accretion, yet it turns out as we show in this letter that it cannot do so for a single rotation. On the other hand it is known that there exists no extremal limit for a black hole with single rotation in dimensions greater than equal to six. It has been proven that all higher dimensional (>4) rotating black holes with only one single rotation can never be overspun under test particle linear accretion and hence would always obey CCC in the weak form.