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[en] Existing criteria for soil filter selection were developed primarily in the earth dam industry, and were based largely on retention principles involving comparison of the particle sizes of base soil and filter material. Stability of base soils has been the primary concern of this industry. The evolving industries of waste containment and soil remediation should use filters designed with a broader perspective. The papers in this volume represent the state-of-the-art in laboratory, field, and theoretical investigations on all aspects of filtration and drainage. Topics include granular vs. geotextile filters, leachate collection systems, soil clogging, filter cakes, analytical modeling, strain effects, pipe box testing to stimulate toe drain performance, agricultural drain envelope design and lab testing, and lessons from the failure of the LS Hydroelectric Power Project Dam
[en] The propagation of transversal mechanical waves in one-dimensional disordered system is studied in presence of the short-range correlation. The dimer and host unit cells are constructed within a particular way that provides perfect unity transmission resonances over all of the system length. Moreover, while dealing with the on-site correlation this interesting configuration also supplies the ballistic vibration propagating modes for any amount of the mass disorder in opposition with the well-known conventional diffusive random dimer model. This process is appropriate to design better mechanical filters with very high adjustable ballistic transmission quality
[en] A magnetic filter plasma source has been designed to produce a low electron temperature (Te ∼ 0.15 eV) and low electron density (ne ∼ 106 cm-3) plasma volume. The parameters Te and ne are found to be controllable within a certain range by adjusting the discharge condition in the source. Charging of micrometre-sized dust grains in such a plasma has been investigated. The measured average charge on a dust grain (a few hundred electrons) is found to be very close to that observed in nature. When dust grains are allowed to enter perpendicularly into an external axial magnetic field applied to such a plasma, the average grain charge increases with increasing strength of the magnetic field (<150 G).
[en] A ballasted-flocculation pilot-scale study was undertaken to treat a wide-range river water turbidity (17 to 2,608 NTU). The pilot-scale unit was operated at flowrates of 30 to 63 m3/h, which corresponded to loading rates of 40 to 84 m/h. Coagulants, polymers, and microsand were added to enhance the floc agglomeration. The weighted flocs settled rapidly resulting in excellent turbidity removals of 94.7 to 99.9%. At the peak turbidity, the unit had a 99.9% removal performance (2.7 from 2,608 NTU) at a loading rate of 40 m/h. In this case, polyaluminum silicosulfate and anionic polymer dosages were 82 and 1 mg/L, respectively. The microsand recycle rate was kept constant at 4.5 m3/h, and 1mg microsand was added for each liter of water treated. (author)
[en] The interfusion of impurities such as metallic wear debris has been a problem in the manufacturing process of foods, medicines, and industrial products. Gravity separation system and membrane separation system has been used widely for powder separation, however magnetic separation system is much efficient to separate magnetic particles. Magnetic separation system under wet process is used conventionally, however, it has some demerit such as necessity of drying treatment after separation and difficulty of running the system in the cold region and so on. Thus, magnetic separation under dry process is prospective as alternative method. In this paper, we developed high gradient magnetic separation system (HGMS) under dry process. In dry HGMS system, powder coagulation caused by particle interaction is considerable. Powder coagulation causes a blockage of magnetic filters and results in decrease of separation performance of dry HGMS system. In order to investigate the effect of powder coagulation on separation performance, we conducted experiments with two kinds of powdered materials whose cohesive properties are different.
[en] Electromagnetic trap for ferro-magnetic particles located in a flowing fluid, featuring a tubular circuit along a part in a non-magnetic material having an inlet duct and two concentric outlet ducts, defining between them an annular area. This tubular circuit is enclosed in electric coils evenly spaced over its length and supplied with multiphased alternating current so as to induce, according to the axis of the tubular circuit, a sliding electromagnetic field moving in the same direction as the fluid. The invention particularly applies to the purifying of aqueous corrosion products from the steels of boiler circuits, specially of the primary and secondary systems of water-cooled nuclear reactors
[fr]Piege electromagnetique pour particules ferromagnetiques situees dans un fluide en ecoulement, caracterise en ce qu'il est constitue d'une partie de circuit tubulaire en un materiau non magnetique ayant une conduite d'entree et deux conduites de sortie concentriques, definissant entre elles une zone annulaire, ledit circuit tubulaire etant entoure de bobines electriques regulierement reparties sur sa longueur et alimentees en courant alternatif polyphase de facon a induire, selon l'axe du circuit tubulaire, un champ electromagnetique glissant de meme sens que l'ecoulement du fluide. L'invention s'applique plus particulierement a l'epuration des produits de corrosion aqueuse des aciers des circuits de chaudiere, en particulier des circuits primaire et secondaire de reacteurs nucleaires refroidis a l'eau
[en] The filter is provided with means creating inside an enclosure transversal magnetic gradients to carry particles towards the inside wall of the enclosure where a sludge is formed. The enclosure has a plan of symmetry, with fluid inlet and outlet on each side, an internal wall determines 2 chambers, fluid path is increased in the enclosuure by a system of pipes. Particles with very low magnetic susceptibility can be retained by the filter
[fr]Le filtre comporte des moyens permettant de creer a l'interieur d'une enceinte des gradients de champ magnetique orientes transversalement et aptes a entrainer les particules vers la paroi interne de cette enceinte ou elles forment une boue. L'enceinte presentant un plan de symetrie, l'entree et la sortie du fluide se faisant de part et d'autre de ce plan, l'enceinte comprenant dans ce plan de symetrie, une cloison de facon a obtenir deux chambres, le filtre comportant en outre un ensemble de conduites aptes a mettre en communication l'entree et la sortie par un systeme d'ouvertures d'entree et de sortie de facon a rallonger le trajet du fluide dans l'enceinte. Application au filtrage de fluides charges de particules dont la susceptibilite magnetique peut etre tres faible