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[en] The measures relative to petroleum products fiscality adopted in the amended 2005 finance law aim at adjusting the allocation of the domestic tax on petroleum products (DTPP) to the 'departements' in order to compensate for the competence transfers which took place in the framework of decentralization. They concern the agriculture and LPG sectors and prepare to the DTPP regionalization. The measures adopted in the first 2006 finance law deal with the fiscality of biofuels and with the DTPP transfers to regions. (J.S.)
[en] Achieving climate policy goals requires mobilizing public funds to bring still immature clean technologies to competitiveness and create new technological options. The format of direct public support must be tailored to the characteristics of technologies addressed. Based on the experience accumulated with innovation programs, we have identified those features of innovation that should directly condition the choice of direct support instruments. These include the funding gap between the cost of innovation activities and the amount of private funds leveraged; the ability of technologies targeted to compete for public funds in the market; the probability that these technologies fail to reach the market; and the type of entity best suited to conduct these activities. Clean innovation features are matched to those of direct support instruments to provide recommendations on the use to be made of each type of instrument. Given the large financing gap of most clean energy innovation projects, public grants and contracts should finance a large part of clean pre-deployment innovation. However, public loans, equity investments, prizes and tax credits or rebates can successfully support certain innovation processes at a lower public cost. Principles derived are applied to identify the instrument best suited to a case example. - Highlights: ► Public financing instruments must be tailored to the features of supported innovation. ► Instruments should trigger desired innovation at the lowest public cost possible. ► They should strike the right balance between technology selection and competition. ► Public funds mobilized through them should reach the innovating entity. ► Public loans, equity investments, prizes, and rebates should be used in specific cases.
[en] After a long period of low nuclear investments owing to major political and regulatory obstacles, the governments of industrialized countries are again looking at nuclear energy as a major political option addressing long term weather and energy security risks. But the liberalization of electrical industries currently adds a major requirement to that highly capitalistic type of investment perceives by investors as presenting specific risks. The reference competitive model is particularly incompatible with that type of investment in production for competing companies. But it is moving towards more investment-friendly structures. After indicating the specific requirements for nuclear investments in market environments, this article offers possible model adjustment options that could enable to boost such investments through drastic distancing: the development of long term electrical contracts, vertical and horizontal reintegration with a view to price - risk control and price - volume control, or the removal from the market of new nuclear productions through a purchase duty. (author)
[en] This document presents the different taxes imposed to petroleum products in France: domestic tax on petroleum products (TIPP) and added value tax (TVA). A comparison is made with the fiscality into effect in other European countries for some petroleum products. Then, the fiscality is detailed for the different petroleum products and automotive fuels with its regional modulations. Finally, the fiscal measures adopted in 2007 are detailed. They concern the transposition of the European directive 2003-96/CE into French right and some fiscal regime changes given to some economical sectors particularly penalized by the rise of petroleum energy prices in 2007. (J.S.)
[en] This paper analyses the impacts of energy taxes whose revenue is recycled to reduce gross wages and increase employment. The main novel feature of this paper, is the attempt to assess the effectiveness of this fiscal reform by using a labour market model in which both skilled and unskilled workers are used in the production process. This segmentation enables us to compare a policy which aims at reducing unskilled workers' wages, as in the original Delors' White book, with a policy in which the environmental fiscal revenue is used to reduce the gross wage of all workers. Moreover, two policy scenarios will be considered. A non-co-operative one in which each country determines the optimal domestic energy tax to achieve a given employment target and a co-operative one, in which the energy taxes are harmonised to equalise marginal abatement costs in the EU and in which the employment target is set for the EU. Our results show that: (1) an employment double dividend can be achieved in the short run only, even if a trade-off between environment and employment always exists; (2) the effect on employment is larger when the fiscal revenue is recycled into all workers' gross wages rather than into unskilled workers only; (3) a co-operative policy leads to even larger benefits in terms of employment provided that an adequate redistribution of fiscal revenues is adopted by EU countries
[en] Tax policies for targeted activities such as wind energy need to be efficient and effective in promoting activities that may not otherwise take place. An efficient tax policy will not have unintended consequences that may lead to tax leakage or benefits outside the targeted activity, and will be consistent with other incentives promoting the target activity. This presentation discussed Canadian tax policies related to wind power and then compared them to tax policies in the United States directed at promoting wind energy development. Benefits and subsidies available to Canadian wind energy producers include the ecoEnergy program, the Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expense (CRCE) program; and Class 43.2 directed at high efficiency and renewable energy generation equipment. The Canadian valuation methodology considers capacity factors; capital costs; leverage; interest rates; corporate tax rates; and required equity. While the ecoEnergy program is valuable as it removes the tax risk for the recipient, the CRCE may be more valuable as it does not expire and is not subject to limitations on amounts deductible. Class 43.2 is valuable but constrained by the limitations of a project's income. The United States has a production tax credit (PTC) for wind developers based on a tax credit of $15 per MWh subject to adjustment, and is available for a 10-year period, is transferable to taxable investors, and has a current value of $20. It was concluded that while Canadian subsidies are the equivalent of $7.15, US subsidies are the equivalent of $17. tabs., figs
[en] The rates of the tax credit have been reduced for 2011 but for 6 years the measure has been helping people to finance the passage to renewable energies in their homes or the improvement of energy efficiency of their homes. This article details the conditions to benefit from this tax credit and the tax credit rates that vary according to the kind of renewable energies. The solar thermal solar installation gives the highest tax credit: up to 45% of all the spending. The article reviews also the conditions to get reduced-rate (even 0-rate) loans for the financing of works aimed at improving energy efficiency of homes. (A.C.)
[en] In France, subsidies in favour of energy efficiency are numerous and diverse. While most of them are ad valorem - proportional to the price of the targeted good or service - as the CITE, the reduced rate VAT, the eco-PTZ or the ANAH subsidies - we propose several arguments in favour of specific subsidies, i.e. independent from the price. Compared to the latter, ad valorem subsidies generate more public spending, distort goods quality, benefit more to wealthy households and provide more incentives to fraud. (authors)
[en] Two fiscal options to invest in wind turbines are available in the Netherlands for enterprises: the EIA (energy investment deduction) and the VAMIL (random debit of environmental investments). Non-profit organizations (in this case, e.g. private persons, foundations, associations) can make use of the subsidy EINP (energy supply in non-profit and other special sectors). Attention is paid to the use of the fore-mentioned legal forms, while there are other, more advantageous forms, that can be used to start a cooperative to set up a wind farm
[nl]De Nederlandse overheid vindt het van groot belang dat in Nederland geinvesteerd wordt in duurzame energie, bijvoorbeeld windmolens. Ondememers die investeren in windmolens kunnen gebruik maken van twee fiscale faciliteiten: de energie-investeringsaftrek (EIA) en de willekeurige afschrijving milieu-investeringen (VAMIL). In het decembernummer van Windnieuws is in het artikel 'Fiscale stimulering van het tweede gewas' ingegaan op deze twee fiscale faciliteiten. Niet-ondernemers (non-profit organisaties) die investeren in windmolens kunnen gebruik maken van de subsidieregeling energievoorzieningen in de nonprofit en bijzondere sectoren (EINP). Niet-ondememers kunnen bijvoorbeeld zijn particulieren, stichtingen en verenigingen. Is eenmaal met succes een beroep gedaan op toepassing van de EIA en VAMIL, dan is het niet langer mogelijk om de EINP te benutten
[en] This report presents the results of the qualitative aspect of the follow up study of the individual heat pumps market. These results complement those about the quantitative aspect of this same market segment. Content: 1 - Present day market situation (air-air heat pumps, air-water heat pumps, thermodynamic water heaters, geothermal heat pumps, brakes to the development of geothermal heat pumps, French market inside the European Union, first 2019 trends); 2 - Market structuration (industrial offers, installers, heat pumps image, prices, legal framework); 3 - Support actions and market perspectives (energy transition tax credits, space heating boost offer, aid from the National agency for accommodation improvement (Anah), short- and medium-term perspectives; 4 - Recommendations for the sector.