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[en] In this paper, we have proposed a novel integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system with steam injected H2/O2 cycle and CO2 recovery. A new evaluation criterion for comprehensive performance of the IGCC system has also been presented. The thermodynamic characteristics, environmental and comprehensive performance of the new system have been investigated based on comparison of different IGCC systems with O2/CO2 cycle. The promising results show the new system has less energy penalty for separating and recovering CO2, an efficiency decrease of less than 1 percentage point. The ratio of CO2 penalty price to fuel price is an important factor influencing the comprehensive performance of this system. The performance of the IGCC with O2/CO2 cycle and syngas separation is better than that with the simple semi-closed O2/CO2 cycle. The above research achievements will provide valuable information for further study on IGCC systems with low CO2 emission
[en] The goal of this research is to establish credible disruption mitigation scenarios based on the technique of massive gas injection. Disruption mitigation seeks to minimize or eliminate damage to internal components that can occur due to the rapid dissipation of thermal and magnetic energy during a tokamak disruption. In particular, the focus of present research is extrapolating mitigation techniques to burning plasma experiments such as ITER, where disruption-caused damage poses a serious threat to the lifetime of internal vessel components. A majority of effort has focused on national and international collaborative research with large tokamaks: DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod, JET, and ASDEX Upgrade. The research was oriented towards empirical trials of gas-jet mitigation on several tokamaks, with the goal of developing and applying cohesive models to the data across devices. Disruption mitigation using gas jet injection has proven to be a viable candidate for avoiding or minimizing damage to internal components in burning plasma experiments like ITER. The physics understanding is progress towards a technological design for the required gas injection system in ITER.
[en] A generic framework for the computation of derivative information required for gradient-based optimization using sequentially coupled subsurface simulation models is presented. The proposed approach allows for the computation of any derivative information with no modification of the mathematical framework. It only requires the forward model Jacobians and the objective function to be appropriately defined. The flexibility of the framework is demonstrated by its application in different reservoir management studies. The performance of the gradient computation strategy is demonstrated in a synthetic water-flooding model, where the forward model is constructed based on a sequentially coupled flow-transport system. The methodology is illustrated for a synthetic model, with different types of applications of data assimilation and life-cycle optimization. Results are compared with the classical fully coupled (FIM) forward simulation. Based on the presented numerical examples, it is demonstrated how, without any modifications of the basic framework, the solution of gradient-based optimization models can be obtained for any given set of coupled equations. The sequential derivative computation methods deliver similar results compared to FIM methods, while being computationally more efficient.
[en] The work on modeling hydraulically fractured horizontal wells has moved forward. A literature review on the subject was done and some of the existing models have been coded and applied to example problems for evaluation purposes. Previous work on the elects of heterogeneities on the performance of horizontal wells was continued by conducting a sensitivity study on various parameters that were kept constant in the earlier study. For example, we have studied the elect of gas cap and aquifer size, well location, fluid viscosity, etc. The experimental work on using horizontal wells as injectors and producers in a gas injection gravity drainage process continued. New and repeat experiments were conducted. Work on streamline grids was advanced by considering example problems with highly distorted grids which cannot be directly used for flow simulation. Grid smoothing and domain mapping techniques were investigated to handle such situations. A technique was developed for the computation o f well index with consideration to wellbore pressure drop. A recently developed reservoir/wellbore coupling model was used for this purpose
[en] To verify the effect of inner- and outer-stage gas jets, a shear coaxial injector was designed to analyze the axial velocity profile and breakup phenomenon with an increase in the measurement distance. When the measurement position was increased to Z/d=100, the axial flow showed a fully developed shape due to the momentum transfer, aerodynamic drag effect, and viscous mixing. An inner gas injection, which induces a higher momentum flux ratio near the nozzle, produces the greater shear force on atomization than an outer gas injection. Inner- and Outer-stage gas injection do not affect the mixing between the inner and outer gas flow below Z/d=5. The experiment results showed that the main effect of liquid jet breakup was governed by the gas jet of an inner stage. As the nozzle exit of the outer-stage was located far from the liquid column, shear force and turbulence breaking up of the liquid jets do not fully affect the liquid column. In the case of an inner-stage gas injection momentum flux ratio within 0.84, with the increase in the outer gas momentum flux ratio, the Smd decreases. However, at an inner-stage gas jet momentum flux ratio over 1.38, the Smd shows the similar distribution
[en] The pretest calculations of phase A of the International Standard Problem 42 (ISP-42) using the GOTHIC containment code are presented in this paper, together with the comparison with the experimental results.The focus of the analyses presented is on the mixing process in the drywells (DWs), initially filled with air, during the initial steam purging transient. Consequently, a large effort has been made to capture the flow pattern produced by the jet created by the steam injection, including in the model a large number of nodes for the three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the two vessels. The influence of the nodalization of the DWs on the calculation was investigated by means of two additional models using one volume for each of the DWs and a 3-D calculation using a much coarser mesh, respectively.Since the fluid in the DWs was well mixed and stratification occurred only below the injection level, all the models could predict very accurately the global variables such as pressure and temperature. The 3-D simulation also reproduced the wall and gas temperature distributions fairly well. The only (inferred) discrepancy with the test was the overprediction in the upward deflection of the buoyant steam jet
[en] Highlights: • Two gas injection experiments were simulated using lumped-parameter code COSOSYS with the same nodalisation scheme. • Calculations provided reasonable results in both cases. • Main discrepancies between calculated and measured results were related to condensation modelling and heat losses. - Abstract: This paper is a continuation of a previously published work regarding application of lumped-parameter code COCOSYS to the containment atmosphere mixing in the presence of jet/plume gas injection. The aim of the previous study was to develop a nodalisation scheme for satisfactory simulation of MISTRA M5 experiment. For this paper the aim was expanded to include the demonstration of nodalisation applicability to different experimental sequence. The task was defied to simulate additional MISTRA facility experiment using the same (except the differences caused by different experimental conditions, e.g., injection diameter) nodalisation scheme. The paper presents results of the simulation of two MISTRA facility experiments – M5 from the SARNET spray benchmark and one test from the International Standard Problem No. 47. Presented simulations were performed using lumped-parameter code COCOSYS with the same enhanced nodalisation scheme. Lumped-parameter code provided reasonable results in both cases. Nodalisational features employed to enhance plume injection simulation in lumped-parameter approach successfully mitigated inherent limitations of this approach in gas mixing modelling
[en] Within the scope of the fourth EU Framework Programme IPSS project, two passive containment cooling systems, the so-called Building Condenser (BC, under an additional bilateral contract between PSI and Siemens) and Plate Condenser (PC), have been studied at the PSI PANDA facility. From the two tests series, tests BC4 and PC1 have been selected for analysis with the code GOTHIC 6.0. Particular phenomena which are of importance with regard to the condensers operating conditions (mixing/stratification of non-condensable gases, such as air and helium) have been analysed. The GOTHIC simulations have been complemented by CFD calculations with CFX-4. (author)
[en] Fusion power shutdown system (FPSS) is a safety system to stop plasma in case of accidents or incidents. The gas injection system for the FPSS presented in this work is designed to research the flow development in a closed system. As the efficiency of the system is a crucial property, plenty of experiments are executed to get optimum parameters. In this system, the flow is driven by the pressure difference between a gas storage tank and a vacuum vessel with a source pressure. The idea is based on a constant volume system without extra source gases to guarantee rapid response and high throughput. Among them, valves and gas species are studied because their properties could influence the velocity of the fluid field. Then source pressures and volumes are emphasized to investigate the volume flow rate of the injection. The source pressure has a considerable effect on the injected volume. From the data, proper parameters are extracted to achieve the best performance of the FPSS. Finally, experimental results are used as a quantitative benchmark for simulations which can add our understanding of the inner gas flow in the pipeline. In generally, there is a good consistency and the obtained correlations will be applied in further study and design for the FPSS