Results 1 - 10 of 209
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[en] We present an analysis of the properties of H I holes detected in 20 galaxies that are part of 'The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey'. We detected more than 1000 holes in total in the sampled galaxies. Where they can be measured, their sizes range from about 100 pc (our resolution limit) to about 2 kpc, their expansion velocities range from 4 to 36 km s-1, and their ages are estimated to range between 3 and 150 Myr. The holes are found throughout the disks of the galaxies, out to the edge of the H I disk; 23% of the holes fall outside R25. We find that shear limits the age of holes in spirals (shear is less important in dwarf galaxies) which explains why H I holes in dwarfs are rounder, on average than in spirals. Shear, which is particularly strong in the inner part of spiral galaxies, also explains why we find that holes outside R25 are larger and older. We derive the scale height of the H I disk as a function of galactocentric radius and find that the disk flares up in all galaxies. We proceed to derive the surface and volume porosity (Q2D and Q3D) and find that this correlates with the type of the host galaxy: later Hubble types tend to be more porous. The size distribution of the holes in our sample follows a power law with a slope of aν ∼ -2.9. Assuming that the holes are the result of massive star formation (SF), we derive values for the supernova rate and star formation rate (SFR) which scales with the SFR derived based on other tracers. If we extrapolate the observed number of holes to include those that fall below our resolution limit, down to holes created by a single supernova, we find that our results are compatible with the hypothesis that H I holes result from SF.
[en] Deep ACS slitless grism observations and identification of stellar sources are presented within the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North and South fields which were obtained in the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) program. It is demonstrated that even low-resolution spectra can be a very powerful means of identifying stars in the field, especially low-mass stars with stellar types M0 and later. The PEARS fields lay within the larger GOODS fields, and we used new, deeper images to further refine the selection of stars in the PEARS field, down to a magnitude of z 850 = 25 using a newly developed stellarity parameter. The total number of stars with reliable spectroscopic and morphological identification was 95 and 108 in the north and south fields, respectively. The sample of spectroscopically identified stars allows constraints to be set on the thickness of the Galactic thin disk as well as contributions from a thick disk and a halo component. We derive a thin disk scale height, as traced by the population of M4-M9 dwarfs along two independent lines of sight, of h thin = 370+60-65 pc. When including the more massive M0-M4 dwarf population, we derive h thin = 300 ± 70 pc. In both cases, we observe that we must include a combination of thick and halo components in our models in order to account for the observed numbers of faint dwarfs. The required thick disk scale height is typically h thick = 1000 pc and the acceptable relative stellar densities of the thin disk to thick disk and the thin disk to halo components are in the range of 0.00025 < f halo < 0.0005 and 0.05 < f thick < 0.08 and are somewhat dependent on whether the more massive M0-M4 dwarfs are included in our sample.
[en] We present a sample of 17 newly discovered ultracool dwarf candidates later than ∼M8, drawn from 231.90 arcmin2 of Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 infrared imaging. By comparing the observed number counts for 17.5 ≤ J125 ≤ 25.5 AB mag to an exponential disk model, we estimate a vertical scale height of zscl = 290 ± 25 (random) ± 31 (systematic) pc for a binarity fraction of fb = 0. While our estimate is roughly consistent with published results, we suggest that the differences can be attributed to sample properties, with the present sample containing far more substellar objects than previous work. We predict the object counts should peak at J125 ∼ 24 AB mag due to the exponentially declining number density at the edge of the disk. We conclude by arguing that trend in scale height with spectral type may breakdown for brown dwarfs since they do not settle onto the main sequence.
[en] We report the discovery of HATS-5b, a transiting hot Saturn orbiting a G-type star, by the HATSouth survey. HATS-5b has a mass of Mp ≈ 0.24 M J, radius of Rp ≈ 0.91 R J, and transits its host star with a period of P ≈ 4.7634 days. The radius of HATS-5b is consistent with both theoretical and empirical models. The host star has a V-band magnitude of 12.6, mass of 0.94 M ☉, and radius of 0.87 R ☉. The relatively high scale height of HATS-5b and the bright, photometrically quiet host star make this planet a favorable target for future transmission spectroscopy follow-up observations. We reexamine the correlations in radius, equilibrium temperature, and metallicity of the close-in gas giants and find hot Jupiter-mass planets to exhibit the strongest dependence between radius and equilibrium temperature. We find no significant dependence in radius and metallicity for the close-in gas giant population.
[en] NGC 4013 is a distinctly warped galaxy with evidence of disk–halo activity. Through deep H i observations and modeling we confirm that the H i disk is thin (central exponential scale height with an upper limit of 4″ or 280 pc), but flaring. We detect a vertical gradient in rotation velocity (lag), which shallows radially from a value of −35 km s−1 kpc−1 at 1.′4 (5.8 kpc), to a value of zero near R25 (11.2 kpc). Over much of this radial range, the lag is relatively steep. Both the steepness and the radial shallowing are consistent with recent determinations for a number of edge-ons, which have been difficult to explain. We briefly consider the lag measured in NGC 4013 in the context of this larger sample and theoretical models, further illuminating disk–halo flows.
[en] We use the recent measurement of the velocity dispersion of star-forming, outer-disk knots by Herbert-Fort et al. in the nearly face-on galaxy NGC 628, in combination with other data from the literature, to execute a straightforward test of gravity at low accelerations. Specifically, the rotation curve at large radius sets the degree of non-standard acceleration and then the predicted scale height of the knots at that radius provides the test of the scenario. For our demonstration, we presume that the Hα knots, which are young (age < 10 Myr), are distributed like the gas from which they have recently formed and find a marginal (>97% confidence) discrepancy with a modified gravity scenario given the current data. More interestingly, we demonstrate that there is no inherent limitation that prevents such a test from reaching possible discrimination at the >4σ level with a reasonable investment of observational resources.
[en] Recent mid-infrared observations of young stellar objects have found significant variations possibly indicative of changes in the structure of the circumstellar disk. Previous models of this variability have been restricted to axisymmetric perturbations in the disk. We consider simple models of a non-axisymmetric variation in the inner disk, such as a warp or a spiral wave. We find that the precession of these non-axisymmetric structures produces negligible flux variations but a change in the height of these structures can lead to significant changes in the mid-infrared flux. Applying these models to observations of the young stellar object LRLL 31 suggests that the observed variability could be explained by a warped inner disk with variable scale height. This suggests that some of the variability observed in young stellar objects could be explained by non-axisymmetric disturbances in the inner disk and this variability would be easily observable in future studies.
[en] We report the discovery of KELT-18b, a transiting hot Jupiter in a 2.87-day orbit around the bright (V = 10.1), hot, F4V star BD+60 1538 (TYC 3865-1173-1). We present follow-up photometry, spectroscopy, and adaptive optics imaging that allow a detailed characterization of the system. Our preferred model fits yield a host stellar temperature of K and a mass of , situating it as one of only a handful of known transiting planets with hosts that are as hot, massive, and bright. The planet has a mass of , a radius of , and a density of , making it one of the most inflated planets known around a hot star. We argue that KELT-18b’s high temperature and low surface gravity, which yield an estimated ∼600 km atmospheric scale height, combined with its hot, bright host, make it an excellent candidate for observations aimed at atmospheric characterization. We also present evidence for a bound stellar companion at a projected separation of ∼1100 au, and speculate that it may have contributed to the strong misalignment we suspect between KELT-18's spin axis and its planet’s orbital axis. The inferior conjunction time is 2457542.524998 ± 0.000416 (BJDTDB) and the orbital period is 2.8717510 ± 0.0000029 days. We encourage Rossiter–McLaughlin measurements in the near future to confirm the suspected spin–orbit misalignment of this system.
[en] We estimated the dynamical surface mass density (Σ) at the solar Galactocentric distance between 2 and 4 kpc from the Galactic plane, as inferred from the observed kinematics of the thick disk. We find Σ(z = 2 kpc) = 57.6 ± 5.8 M sun pc-2, and it shows only a tiny increase in the z range considered by our investigation. We compared our results with the expectations for the visible mass, adopting the most recent estimates in the literature for contributions of the Galactic stellar disk and interstellar medium, and proposed models of the dark matter distribution. Our results match the expectation for the visible mass alone, never differing from it by more than 0.8 M sun pc-2 at any z, and thus we find little evidence for any dark component. We assume that the dark halo could be undetectable with our method, but the dark disk, recently proposed as a natural expectation of the ΛCDM models, should be detected. Given the good agreement with the visible mass alone, models including a dark disk are less likely, but within errors its existence cannot be excluded. In any case, these results put constraints on its properties: thinner models (scale height lower than 4 kpc) reconcile better with our results and, for any scale height, the lower-density models are preferred. We believe that successfully predicting the stellar thick disk properties and a dark disk in agreement with our observations could be a challenging theoretical task.
[en] We carry out high-resolution calculations of the solar overshoot region with unprecedentedly realistic parameters, especially the small energy flux compared with , where ρ and c s are density and speed of sound. Our main purpose is to investigate the behavior of the overshoot and the small-scale dynamo with parameters as close as possible to those of the Sun. Our calculations show that the bottom part of the convection zone (CZ) becomes subadiabatic, which efficiently suppresses downflows. As a result, we see a steep transition from the CZ to the radiative zone, whose width is estimated to be 0.4% of the local pressure scale height. This result is consistent with a semianalytic convection/overshoot model. We also find that the small-scale dynamo becomes efficient with a smaller energy flux. The sudden suppression of the downflows around the base of the CZ increases the efficiency of the small-scale dynamo.