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[en] The isolation of third world scientists from the modes of production and from the culture of their countries seems to be related to the alienation of the urban culture of these countries from their respective rural backgrounds. It is suggested that this alienation may be overcome by directly interfacing modern science and technology to the corresponding elements in their rural culture through the process of education. (author)
[en] Most of the world’s population lives in urban areas (54%). Near 42% of the global urban population live in cities with more than 1 million inhabitants, where problems associated with urban sprawl such as informal settlement, social-economic changes, environmental degradation and deficient high-capacity transport (HCT) systems are common. Meanwhile, urbanization and its associated transportation infrastructure define the relationship between city and countryside, between the city’s inner core and the periphery, between the citizen and his right to move. This article discusses and presents an overview about the relationship between the planning and extension of HCT systems and urban planning, (in the figure of the floor-area ratio - FAR- prescribed in regulations). The methodological approach consists of drawing a conceptual framework and studying 33 different cities of metropolitan areas on five continents. It’s noticed that areas in cities with a high construction potential but with an insufficient HCT negatively influence in urban mobility and hence the right to the city. We consider right to the city the various social and fundamental rights that, among others, includes the right to public transportation. Therefore there’s a real need of an integrated approach of community participation, FAR distribution, urban planning and transportation planning and so that urbanization, inevitable these days, takes place in a fair and harmonious way. (Author)
[en] Since the twentieth century, local governments in different cities of Latin America started implementing neoliberal urban policies with the aim of configuring economically productive cities. Cities seek to improve their location factor by attracting visitors and investors. This led to a change, from the logic urban government administration to the entrepreneurial city. One of the most significant consequences of this urban policy is that public spaces become more selective. They are turned into new centralities, oriented at sectors of high-income, locally and internationally, which leads to the deepening of socio-economic polarization, giving rise to fragmented and unequal cities. The production of a certain space takes places by the urban policies as well as by the local actors. Public space is one of the places where the tension between these two scales is carried out. This tension arises from the conflict about which actors are responsible for the implementation of new parameters of who uses and consumes the public space and how. This article addresses the configuration of public spaces in two case studies in Latin America: The construction of the Boulevard Naciones Unidas in Quito, and the urban intervention in the neighborhood of La Boca in Buenos Aires.
[en] Urban space could be considered as a social-technological formation resulting an exchange network made of goods, services and people. Currently, urban spaces are not only to be considered as containers of the digital infrastructure which further allows such flows of capital, but as the very product of those digital media leveraging such infrastructure: social networks, blogs, geo-location platforms and so on. Such media are crossbreeds of a new productive relationship within space. Hypothesis consist in this media play a role in contemporary processes of spatial production, as those qualities performed all over a resulting space should be equally rendered all over these media. The data sets analyzed capture the volume of online conversations overtime related to the pop-up mall Boxpark shoreditch. Such public space is located at the Shoreditch Metro Station, in the Hackney Borough of South east London. This media including the multitude of use values attached to space via crowd sourcing.
[en] This paper seeks to contribute to interdisciplinary reflection on about different forms of appropriation of urban space, generated from contemporary urban interventions. It also intends to interrogate the specific role of the Puerto Madero urban project in the growth and the social and spatial fragmentation of the city of Buenos Aires. Providing empirical data collected through an ethnographic approach about the use of the public spaces of Puerto Madero, designed to underline the multiple relationships, practices and representations that come into play between several stakeholders with varying interests emphasizing, and the dynamics brought about by the disconnection between Puerto Madero and the rest of the city. This process of urban transformation was designed to configure a specific type of mobility as well as to provide a welcoming and prestigious image designed mostly to attract capital, investments and tourism. The urban intervention that triggered this process has drawn on arguments associated with a portuary identity, using the landscape inherited from the old port.
[en] The subject is concerned, in general, with the mathematical modelling of city structure and life, of the interaction between people, the activities which they perform, e.g. work, travel, shopping, etc., and the places to which they go, e.g. factories, shops, residences, etc., and the infrastructure of that interaction, e.g. road network, travel cost, etc. As an example, the problem of retailing is treated, in which is examined what governs the flow of revenue into a shopping zone/centre, how such processes can be mathematically modelled and how such models could be applied to the study of the evolution of an urban city structure in relation to the placement and size of its shopping zones/centres and the background cash-spending distribution in the city. 3 refs, 16 figs
[en] With globalization of the modern world, transformation of a country from a homogeneous society into a multi-cultural nation is taking place. This is the case in Australia, UAE, Singapore, Switzerland, etc. This transformation is also affecting the nuclear industry. Despite the Fukushima accident, many countries remain interested in nuclear power including a number of aspiring states. Many of these nuclear aspiring states are in the Middle East, South America, and Africa. Due to the limited nature of domestic manpower, implementation of nuclear power development in some of these countries is expected to be performed by a multi-cultural workforce, such as what is observed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). To ensure safe and secure use of nuclear power in the future, it is necessary to understand how the use of multi-cultural workforce affects the life-cycle of these new developments, including plant construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. This study is to examine potential challenges in nuclear energy development caused by multi-cultural issues. By using UAE's nuclear development as a test case, the study examined the impact of cultural differences among the workforce on an insider threat in UAE's nuclear power development. A system dynamics modeling approach was used to trace the relationships between multi-cultural workers and occurrence rate of an insider threat event through the phases of design, licensing installation, operation, and maintenance. For a quantitative assessment of risk comparison between mono-culture and multi-culture-nuclear industry, ethnocentric model for workers' social behavior estimation and the VISA model for calculating nuclear security risk affected by multi-cultural workers were developed. In examining cultural effects on UAE nuclear power plants, cross-cultural issues were evaluated using Additive weighting Technique and cultural indexes from the Hofstede study. Finally, ways to minimize multi-cultural effect on the performance of nuclear power industry are suggested. (authors)
[en] The new century is characterized by the innovation of new paradigms, it is necessary to fare through unexplored ways of interpreting urban public space not only as a wide open space with greenery, apt for the common use, even for those who are homeless but as a space of physical, economic and social reproduction; a space of recreation, holding memory and collective symbols; a space where social struggle occurs. Such an adventure implies the development and the pairing of a diverse set of concepts, methods and knowledge; emphasizing on the issues that are waiting to be solved rather than on the disciplinary boundaries that may well diminish the solving possibilities at hand. The social nature of urban public space, and the challenges posed by critically reviewing both public policy making and the different practices of agents within the construction process of urban public space, provide researchers with subjects, new issues and reflection spaces waiting to be solved in the post society.
[en] Science has still to be understood by millions of Asians if their countries are to modernize and develop. But the difficulties of interpreting science and technology for the public are great, particularly in countries with large rural components, as in Asia. Here, illiteracy rates are often high and there are few opportunities for direct contact with modern science and technology. Yet it is precisely in these areas where the need for the application of modern science and technology may be the greatest. The mass media have always been identified as the best means of bringing about public understanding of science and technology