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[en] Double-J ureteral stents and antegrade stenting have been performed by radiologists for years. Various methods have been described, dependent on available equipment as well as technical expertise. As such, there is no definite consensus with regards to deployment of these stents. We describe an innovative technique, which would improve this procedure and highlight its advantages.
[en] The electronic properties of the polythiophene nano-tubule films were studied with surface photovoltage spectrum (SPS) and field-induced surface photovoltage spectrum (FISPS). The surface photovoltaic responses were resulted from the π-π* transition of polythiophene chains. Two extra photovoltaic responses in the near-IR region were observed under the external electric field. Based on the band theory and the principle of FISPS, these responses were ascribed to the charged surface electronic states, which were led by the interaction between polythiophene nano-tubules and the oxygen absorbed on the surface
[en] The art and science of fabricating structures with nano-/micrometric dimensions as well as precision is of the immense concern to any one investigating into nano-/microtechnology. The synergetic support of radiation and its potential in combining radiation effects with nano-/micromaterials has been recognized from the very early stages of nano-science research. In the myriad of applications and uses of nano-/microstructures, and nano particles in particular, from filtration, fabrication of biosensors, a chemical catalysis, magnetic structures, nano-electronics, MEMS, mechano-chemical conversion, quantum computing etc to name a few, radiation can play a significant role. One such potential application is track-etch membranes- a spin-off from the matter-radiation interaction. In the recent years, there has been a tremendous leap in the potential applications of metallic as well as non-metallic nano-/microstructures and materials. Nanotechnology has initiated a big hop and appears to be all set for bringing in revolution in the development and advancement of techniques involved in the synthesis and fabrication of sensors and devices. The conventional techniques for fabrication of very low dimensional wires - say quantum wires, include wet chemistry, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam techniques and atomic-beam lithography but for certain drawbacks and problems mentioned further. That has shown the ways for adopting newer alternative approaches which are relatively inexpensive, easier to handle and synergistically adorned with high efficacy. It is now well known that size of the devices and components dictate many unusual traits where quantum effects become more predominant. Quasi-one-dimensional nanostructures and materials like nanowires, fibres, tubules etc, having high aspect ratio would provide unusual and uncommon properties. Some properties like strength and hardness enhancement, dramatic changes in electrical conduction, field-ion-emission through tunneling phenomenon, optical, magnetic, and chemical and other important functional attributes etc are found to be enhanced when the size reduction comes into play. This review article addresses the art and science of specific technique-the 'Template Synthesis'(TS) used as a route in the development of nano-/micromaterials and structures involving metals, non-metals, semiconductors, magnetic multilayered nanowires, conducting polymers, glasses, nanotubules, wires and whiskers etc. The recent past has witnessed keen interest being generated on the use of innovative technologies like TS in the production of nanomaterials' fabrication reported from various authors and from our lab. The strategy for embedding matter of interest within the etched pores or channels in the template is the material's placement through some suitable mechanism at the desired places viz., pores.
[en] This guide includes information relative to the interest of the examination, its indications ( and contraindications), the patient information, the radiopharmaceuticals used, the activity to inject, dosimetry; information about the acquisition of the examination, the processing of image reconstruction, a part devoted to radiation protection for medical personnel, and patient family. (N.C.)
[en] Microtubules (MT) are dynamic structural cellular components. In proliferating cells, they are essential components in cell division through the formation of the mitotic spindle. Radiotherapy is an integral part of cancer treatment for most of the solid cancers. Scanty data exists in the literature related to how ionizing radiation affects microtubule reorganization in tumor cells. In the present study, breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 cells) was exposed to different doses of radiation (2-10Gy). Cells were cultured for 24 h, fixed and stained with antitubulin antibody and subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. In another experiment, cells were subjected to cold treatment for 5 min or 30 min for studying the disassembly of microtubules after 24 h of irradiation. Further, these cells were incubated at 37°C for 20 min for studying the reassembly of microtubules. Acetylation of microtubule was also examined after exposure of cells to radiation. Experiments were also performed by combining radiation with low concentration of CXI-Benzo 84 (MT destabilizing agent 1 and 2.5 uM). Exposure of MCF-7 cells to radiation lead to destabilization of microtubules. Interestingly, destabilization of microtubule was faster upon cold treatment in irradiated group as compared to control group. These cells failed to re-stabilize at 37°C. Radiation also reduced the acetylation level of microtubule. Combination treatment of CXI-Benzo 84 with radiation exhibited additive effect in terms of depolymerization of MT. Our results suggest that ionizing radiation indeed modulates microtubule dynamics. (author)
[en] Previous studies have demonstrated that treatment of human leukemic cells (K562) with sublytic concentrations of membrane pore-farmers; murine perforin, streptococcal exotoxin streptolysin O (SLO), and the bee venom polypeptide mellitin induces cell resistance to lyptic complement doses. In the present study, sublytic dose effect of mutant streptolysing O (SLO) on immortalized normal human renal proximal kidney tubule cells transfected with E6/E7 (HPV 16), HKC clone 8, from complement mediated lysis was determined using the two-stage eosin complement mediated microcytotoxicity assay. Using pooled sera from highly sensitized ESRD patients as source of antibodies, and rabbit complement, sublytic SLO dose-treated HKC clone 8 cells did not show any resistance to complement-mediated lysis as compared to the untreated cells. The same result ''no induced resistance'' was obtained for K562 cells pretreated with sublytic SLO dose when it subjected to complement lysis. The difference in results obtained from the previous study may be attributed to the change in cell type (HKC clone 8) of the test system, and the use of human antibody instead of rabbit polyclonal antibody. (author)
[en] The level of circulating tissue factor (TF) is up-regulated in human angiogenesis-related malignancies. However, whether circulating TF has angiogenic activities has not been determined. Soluble TF (sTF) is the main domain of circulating TF. Here, using cell migration, wound healing, and tubule formation assays, human recombinant sTF was found to significantly promote the migration and differentiation of endothelial cells. The stress fiber formation and rearrangement induced by sTF observed through immunofluorescence microscope may be responsible for the stimulatory migration effect of sTF. Nevertheless, sTF had no effects on endothelial cell proliferation. Interestingly, sTF can be internalized by endothelial cells, which implies a novel mechanism for sTF in angiogenesis. These results suggest that sTF has unique angiogenic activities and may serve as a potential therapeutic target to treat diseases associated with angiogenesis such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis