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[en] We present a technique for generation of miniature plasma lens system that can be used for focusing and collimating a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. The plasma lens was created by a nanosecond laser, which ablated a capillary entrance. The spatial configuration of the ablated plasma focused a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. This configuration offers versatility in the plasma lens small f-number for extremely tight focusing of high power lasers with no damage threshold restrictions of regular optical components.
[en] When extracting the weak lensing shear signal, one may employ either locally normalized or globally normalized shear estimators. The former is the standard approach when estimating cluster masses, while the latter is the more common method among peak finding efforts. While both approaches have identical signal-to-noise in the weak lensing limit, it is possible that higher order corrections or systematic considerations make one estimator preferable over the other. In this paper, we consider the efficacy of both estimators within the context of stacked weak lensing mass estimation in the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We find that the two estimators have nearly identical statistical precision, even after including higher order corrections, but that these corrections must be incorporated into the analysis to avoid observationally relevant biases in the recovered masses. We also demonstrate that finite bin-width effects may be significant if not properly accounted for, and that the two estimators exhibit different systematics, particularly with respect to contamination of the source catalog by foreground galaxies. Thus, the two estimators may be employed as a systematic cross-check of each other. Stacked weak lensing in the DES should allow for the mean mass of galaxy clusters to be calibrated to ∼2% precision (statistical only), which can improve the figure of merit of the DES cluster abundance experiment by a factor of ∼3 relative to the self-calibration expectation. A companion paper investigates how the two types of estimators considered here impact weak lensing peak finding efforts.
[en] Glaser and Robl (Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 2 (1951) 444) first proposed a theoretical model for a bi-potential electrostatic lens, whose axial potential distribution satisfies the law of electrostatics and whose paraxial trajectory equation is soluble. In this paper, the Gaussian optical property in the bi-potential electrostatic lens has been thoroughly studied. Meanwhile, based on electron optical canonical aberration theory, analytical formulas of third-order geometrical and first-order chromatic aberration coefficients have first been derived and their computational results obtained for this bi-potential electrostatic lens. It is to be emphasized that this theoretical study can be used to estimate third-order geometric and first-order chromatic aberrations and to provide a theoretical criterion for numerical computation in a rotationally symmetric electrostatic immersion lens
[en] Simplified analytical expressions for the field of a cylindrical deflector with plane side electrodes are obtained. The beam focusing in all directions takes place in the deflector. Simple formulae for the optical power are found. The formulae permit to calculate paraxial trajectories, envelopes of a charged particle beam and also the crossover position and size. A system for charged particle beam shaping containing an immersion lens and 90 deg deflector is calculated
[en] Gravitational lensing by a cluster of galaxies can distort a background galaxy so that it appears unusually elongated. It is found that if the observer's detection thresholds for measuring an unusually elongated galaxy are axial ratio ≥ 5 and z ≤ 1, then the probability of observation is about 1 in 50 clusters of velocity dispersion ≥ 1000 km/sec. It is also shown that such distorted galaxies are ≥ 10 times more likely than the currently observed giant arcs; the shorter arc, the more probable it is to occur. Observation of these elongated galaxies could serve as a measure of the velocity dispersion of clusters of galaxies
[en] In this Letter we investigate the strong gravitational lansing in a charged squashed Kaluza–Klein Gödel black hole. The deflection angle is considered by the logarithmic term proposed by Bozza et al. Then we study the variation of deflection angle and its parameters a¯ and b¯. We suppose that the supermassive black hole in the galaxy center can be considered by a charged squashed Kaluza–Klein black hole in a Gödel background. Then by the relations between lensing parameters and observables, we estimate the observables for different values of charge, extra dimension and Gödel parameters
[en] Large catalogs of shear-selected peaks have recently become a reality. In order to properly interpret the abundance and properties of these peaks, it is necessary to take into account the effects of the clustering of source galaxies, among themselves and with the lens. In addition, the preferred selection of magnified galaxies in a flux- and size-limited sample leads to fluctuations in the apparent source density that correlate with the lensing field. In this paper, we investigate these issues for two different choices of shear estimators that are commonly in use today: globally normalized and locally normalized estimators. While in principle equivalent, in practice these estimators respond differently to systematic effects such as magnification and cluster member dilution. Furthermore, we find that the answer to the question of which estimator is statistically superior depends on the specific shape of the filter employed for peak finding; suboptimal choices of the estimator+filter combination can result in a suppression of the number of high peaks by orders of magnitude. Magnification and size bias generally act to increase the signal-to-noise ν of shear peaks; for high peaks the boost can be as large as Δν ∼ 1-2. Due to the steepness of the peak abundance function, these boosts can result in a significant increase in the observed abundance of shear peaks. A companion paper investigates these same issues within the context of stacked weak-lensing mass estimates.
[en] We model the massive dark object at the center of the Galaxy as a Schwarzschild black hole as well as Janis-Newman-Winicour naked singularities, characterized by the mass and scalar charge parameters, and study gravitational lensing (particularly time delay, magnification centroid, and total magnification) by them. We find that the lensing features are qualitatively similar (though quantitatively different) for Schwarzschild black holes, weakly naked, and marginally strongly naked singularities. However, the lensing characteristics of strongly naked singularities are qualitatively very different from those due to Schwarzschild black holes. The images produced by Schwarzschild black hole lenses and weakly naked and marginally strongly naked singularity lenses always have positive time delays. On the other hand, strongly naked singularity lenses can give rise to images with positive, zero, or negative time delays. In particular, for a large angular source position the direct image (the outermost image on the same side as the source) due to strongly naked singularity lensing always has a negative time delay. We also found that the scalar field decreases the time delay and increases the total magnification of images; this result could have important implications for cosmology. As the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric also describes the exterior gravitational field of a scalar star, naked singularities as well as scalar star lenses, if these exist in nature, will serve as more efficient cosmic telescopes than regular gravitational lenses
[en] Here, we perform a measurement of the mass–richness relation of the redMaPPer galaxy cluster catalogue using weak lensing data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We carefully characterized a broad range of systematic uncertainties, including shear calibration errors, photo-zz biases, dilution by member galaxies, source obscuration, magnification bias, incorrect assumptions about cluster mass profiles, cluster centering, halo triaxiality, and projection effects. We then compare measurements of the lensing signal from two independently-produced shear and photometric redshift catalogues to characterize systematic errors in the lensing signal itself. Using a sample of 5,570 clusters from 0.1 ≤ zz ≤ 0.33, the normalization of our power-law mass vs. λ relation is log10[M200m/h-1 M⊙] = 14.344 ± 0.021 (statistical) ±0.023 (systematic) at a richness λ = 40, a 7 per cent calibration uncertainty, with a power-law index of 1.33+0.09-0.101.33(+0.09/(−0.10)) (1σ). Finally, the detailed systematics characterization in this work renders it the definitive weak lensing mass calibration for SDSS redMaPPer clusters at this time.
[en] We present a calculation of the angle-averaged squeezed matter bispectrum covariance Cov(Bm(k1, k1', s1), Bm(k2, k2', s2)), si ki,ki' (i=1,2), that uses matter power spectrum responses to describe the coupling of large- to short-scale modes in the nonlinear regime. The covariance is given by a certain configuration of the 6-point function, which we show is dominated by response-type mode-coupling terms in the squeezed bispectrum limit. The terms that are not captured by responses are small, effectively rendering our calculation complete and predictive for linear s1,s2 values and any nonlinear values of k1,k1',k2,k2'. Our numerical results show that the squeezed bispectrum super-sample covariance is only a negligible contribution. We also compute the power spectrum-bispectrum cross-covariance using responses. Our derivation for the squeezed matter bispectrum is the starting point to calculate analytical covariances for more realistic galaxy clustering and weak-lensing applications. It can also be used in cross-checks of numerical ensemble estimates of the general bispectrum covariance, given that it is effectively noise-free and complete in the squeezed limit.