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[en] Cotton fibers are unicellular seed trichomes and the largest known plant cells. Fiber morphogenesis in cotton is a complex process involving a large number of genes expressed throughout fiber development process. The expression profiling of five gene families in various cotton tissues was carried out through real time PCR. Expression analysis revealed that transcripts of expansin, tubulin and E6 were elevated from 5 to 20 days post anthesis (DPA) fibers. Three Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) including LTP1, LTP3, LTP7 exhibited highest expression in 10 - 20 DPA fibers. Transcripts of LTP3 were detected in fibers and non fiber tissues that of LTP7 were almost negligible in non fiber tissues. Sucrose phosphate synthase gene showed highest expression in 10 DPA fibers while sucrose synthse (susy) expressed at higher rate in 5-20 DPA fibers as well as roots. The results reveal that most of fiber related genes showed high expression in 5-20 DPA fibers. Comprehensive expression study may help to determine tissue and stage specificity of genes under study. The study may also help to explore complex process of fiber development and understand the role of these genes in fiber development process. Highly expressed genes in fibers may be transformed in cotton for improvement of fiber quality traits. Genes that were expressed specifically in fibers or other tissues could be used for isolation of upstream regulatory sequences. (author)
[en] In Selenomoans ruminantium, a strictly anaerobic and gram negative bacterium, cadaverine and putrescine are the essential constituents of its peptidoglycan. S. ruminantium does not contain both free and bound types of lipoprotein, but it contains cadaverine as a component of its peptidoglycan. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) is a key enzyme for a synthesis of spermidine and spermine in S. ruminantium. The crude extract of S. ruminantium was preincubated at 100 degrees Celcius and its SAMDC activity was measured by using a "1"4C labeled substrate. We report here on a heat stable SAMDC which is able to withstand a temperature up to 100 degrees Celcius
[en] The Zn(II)-containing carbonic anhydrase (CA) has stimulated much effort into the syntheses of simple model complexes that are designed to mimic the coordination environment of the active site. The Zn(II) in CA is coordinated to three histidine imidazols and a water molecule in a distorted tetrahedral geometry, which is considered to expand to five in a transient manner or by anion inhibitor binding. Recently, X-ray crystal analysis of the SCN- binding to CA showed the Zn(II) ion in an ill-defined five-coordinate complex with SCN- and a water bound. Kimura et al. discovered that a tetrahedral Zn(II)-OH2 triamine complex with 1,5,9-triazacyclododecane(L2) is a good model for the active center of CA. In this complex the pKa of the coordinated water molecule is close to that of CA, and the generated L2-Zn(II)-OH species acts as nucleophile in CA-catalyzing reaction, such as in hydrolysis of activated ester. Additional study on the crystal structure of the SCN- binding to Zn(II) complex of L2 showed a trigonal bipyramidal geometry with an equatorial and an apical Zn(II)-NCS bonds. We also reported the crystal structure of [Zn(L1)(NCS)][NCS], in which the Zn(II) ion reveals a square pyramidal geometry with an apical thiocyanate nitrogen atom. We report herein the preparation and crystal structure of the Zn(II) complex of L1 with azide ligands
[en] The zinc coordination in 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase was investigated by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) associated with the zinc K-edge. The enzyme binds 8 mol of zinc/mol of octameric protein, but only four zinc ions seem sufficient for full activity. The authors have undertaken a study on four forms of the enzyme: (a) the eight-zinc native enzyme; (b) the enzyme with only the four zinc sites necessary for full activation occupied; (c) the enzyme with the vacant sites of (b) occupied by four lead ions; (d) the product complex between (b) and porphobilinogen. They have shown that two structurally distinct types of zinc sites are available in the enzyme. The site necessary for activity has an average zinc environment best described by two/three histidines and one/zero oxygen from a group such as tyrosine or a solvent molecule at 2.06 ± 0.02 angstrom, one tyrosine or aspartate at 1.91 ± 0.03 angstrom, and one cysteine sulfur at 2.32 ± 0.03 angstrom with a total coordination of five ligands. The unoccupied site in (b) is dominated by a single contribution of four cysteinyl sulfur atoms at 2.28 ± 0.02 angstrom. Spectra from samples (c) and (d) show only small changes from that of (b), reflecting a slight rearrangement of the ligands around the zinc atom
[en] Some commercially important vinyl derivatives are produced by the decarboxylation of phenolic acids. Enzymatically, this process can be achieved by phenolic acid decarboxylases (PADs), which are able to act on phenolic acid substrates such as ferulic and p-coumaric acid. Although many microbial PADs have been characterized, little is known regarding their plant homologs. Transcriptome sequencing in the liverworts has identified seven putative PADs, which share a measure of sequence identity with microbial PADs, but are typically much longer proteins. Here, a PAD-encoding gene was isolated from the liverwort species Conocephalum japonicum. The 1197 nt CjPAD cDNA sequence was predicted to be translated into a 398 residue protein. When the gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, its product exhibited a high level of PAD activity when provided with either p-coumaric or ferulic acid as substrate, along with the conversion of caffeic acid and sinapic acid to their corresponding decarboxylated products. Both N- and C-terminal truncation derivatives were non-functional. The transient expression in tobacco of a GFP/CjPAD fusion gene demonstrated that the CjPAD protein is expressed in the cytoplasm. It is first time a PAD was characterized from plants and the present investigation provided a candidate gene for catalyzing the formation of volatile phenols.