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[en] We present a case of spontaneous pneumatocele and pneumocephalus associated with mastoid hyperpneumatization. Collections of air such as these are normally due to injury or surgery, and more rarely, infection or tumor; exceptionally they may be spontaneous. The patient in question complained of a progressively enlarging retroauricular mass which increased in size on Valsalva maneuvers; he had no other symptoms. The etiology, skull X-rays, computed tomography and follow-up after surgery are shown here
[en] The principal purpose to be served by international agreement on the classification of cancer cases by extent of disease is to provide a method of conveying clinical experience to others without ambiguity. There are many bases or axes of classification, for example: the anatomical site and the clinical extent of disease found on clinical examination, the reported duration of symptoms or signs, the sex and age of the patient, the histological type and grade, etc. All of these bases or axes represent variables which are known to have an influence on the outcome of the disease. Classification by anatomical extent of disease as determined clinically is the one to which the attention of the UICC is primarily directed. The TNM System for describing the anatomical extent of disease is based on the assessment of three components: T - The extent of the primary tumour; N - The condition of the regional lymph nodes and in certain regions of the juxta-regional lymph nodes; M - The absence or presence of distant metastases
[en] Regulatory T cells (Tregs) were initially described as “suppressive” lymphocytes in the 1980s. However, it took almost 20 years until the concept of Treg-mediated immune control in its present form was finally established. Tregs are obligatory for self-tolerance and defects within their population lead to severe autoimmune disorders. On the other hand Tregs may promote tolerance for tumor antigens and even hamper efforts to overcome it. Intratumoral and systemic accumulation of Tregs has been observed in various types of cancer and is often linked to worse disease course and outcome. Increase of circulating Tregs, as well as their presence in mesenteric lymph nodes and tumor tissue of patients with colorectal cancer de facto suggests a strong involvement of Tregs in the antitumor control. This review will focus on the Treg biology in view of colorectal cancer, means of Treg accumulation and the controversies regarding their prognostic significance. In addition, a concise overview will be given on how Tregs and their function can be targeted in cancer patients in order to bolster an inherent immune response and/or increase the efficacy of immunotherapeutic approaches
[en] Highlights: • MiR-585 is down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues. • Down-regulation of miR-585 indicates poor prognosis for GC patients. • MiR-585 inhibits GC cell proliferation and migration by targeting MAPK1. Increasing evidence reveals that microRNA contributes to the development and progression of gastric cancer (GC), but the roles of miR-585 in GC remain unclear. In this study, we confirmed that miR-585 was down-regulated in GC tissues and cell lines and that miR-585 expression was related to extent of invasion, TNM stage, lymph node invasion and poor prognosis. Our results showed that miR-585 inhibits the proliferation and migration of GC, and MAPK1 is a direct and functional target of miR-585. Our study sheds light on the role of miR-585 as a suppressor for tumor growth and metastasis and raises the intriguing possibility that miR-585 may serve as a new potential marker for monitoring and treating GC.
[en] The objective is to compare the efficacy of Epley's maneuver and vestibular sedative, prochlorperazine maleate in the management of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Study Design: Randomized Control Trial. Place and Duration of Study: ENT department, Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from 1st May 2011 to 1st November 2011. Patients and Methods: After consent, 60 patients of BPPV fulfilling the inclusion criteria were randomly allotted two groups. Group A was treated with Epley's maneuver (n=30) while group B with prochlorperazine maleate (n=30). Outcomes were analyzed on disappearance of vertigo at follow-up examination. Results: 24 (80%) cases managed by Epley's maneuver showed relief of symptoms while only 14 (47%) treated by rochlorperazine maleate showed recovery after 15 days. Conclusion: Epley's maneuver was more effective than vestibular sedatives like prochlorperazine maleate in treating patients of BPPV. (author)
[en] The aim of this study was to characterize in vivo measurements of diffusion along the length of the entire healthy spinal cord and to compare DTI indices, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), between cord regions. The objective is to determine whether or not there are significant differences in DTI indices along the cord that must be considered for future applications of characterizing the effects of injury or disease. A cardiac gated, single-shot EPI sequence was used to acquire diffusion-weighted images of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions of the spinal cord in nine neurologically intact subjects (19 to 22 years). For each cord section, FA versus MD values were plotted, and a k-means clustering method was applied to partition the data according to tissue properties. FA and MD values from both white matter (average , average mm2/s) and grey matter (average , average mm2/s) were relatively consistent along the length of the cord
[en] Background and purpose: The incidence of retrosternal goiter (Rg) varies from 2% to 26% of all thyroidectomies, depending on the defining criteria . There are no clear guidelines to identify patients that require an intrathoracic approach. So, we tried to correlate, between the size and/ or anatomical site of the RSG based on preoperative CT findings and the surgical approaches used, aiming at defining those patients with RSG who are in need for thoracic approach. Patients and methods: Out of 1481 patients underwent thyroidectomy at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University, between January 2000 and December 2009, only 73 (4.93%) of them had retrosternal extension. Demographic, clinical, operative, anatomical, and pathological data of patients with RSG were recorded and analyzed. Results: The intraoperative extension of the goiter correlated with the extension seen in the CT in all except two patients. Laterality and longitudinal extension found in preoperative CT, correlated well with the surgical findings. The approach used was cervical in 66 cases (90.4%); combined approach in six patients (8.2%). Pure thoracic (full sternotomy) was used alone in one case (1.4%). Extension of the RSG down to or below the arch was associated with an increased risk of using a thoracic approach p< 0.0001. Conclusion: Preoperative CT, can be used effectively to guide the indications for using a thoracic approach. Reaching the aortic arch or beyond and loss of fat planes in CT, recurrent and malignant disease, are significant risk factors for using a thoracic approach.
[en] Intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma is a benign and very rare mesenchymal neoplasm of the lymph nodes originating from differentiated smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts. We report a case of intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma in an 84-year-old woman with Parkinson’s disease that presented as a left inguinal mass. The diagnosis was made using ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy and consequent cytopathological examination that included immunohistochemical analysis. Herein, we discuss the presentation of a rare intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma with emphasis on its ultrasonographic and cytopathologic features. Intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of inguinal lymphadenopathy and the diagnosis is possible with cytopathologic exam and immunohistochemical analysis using ultrasound-guided FNA biopsy, guiding the clinician to nodal excision rather than aggressive measures