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[en] The present study aims at establishing the design procedure of regenerative pumps. It is based on the new momentum exchange theory proposed in Yoo, Park and Chung. Salient feature of the present design procedure is that is does not require input of any kinds of empirical design data. Using the design procedure, a prototype regenerative pump has been designed and manufactured to confirm its validity. Comparison between the predicted performance and the experimental measurement reveals that the prototype pump has its maximum efficiency at the design flow rate and that the proposed performance analysis method satisfactorily predicts the machine performance
[en] A flight experiment demonstrating vibration suppression using smart structure technology is being flown on a small British satellite in late 1993. Piezo actuators are used to suppress motion of the tip of a cryocooler coldfinger in three dimensions. Two actuation methods are being demonstrated: low voltage piezo translators and applique ceramics. The applique ceramics stretch the coldfinger to cancel the tip motion and is discussed in detail in a companion paper. Commercially available piezo translators displace the entire cryocooler to cancel the motion of the tip of the coldfinger as measured by three eddy current transducers. Two types of control systems are being demonstrated: a real time analog control system using position feedback, and a digital feed forward controller that updates it's waveform every second or so. The flight experiment is a technology demonstration. The coldfinger is not being used to cool an operational sensor. Instead, the cooler vibration experiment will demonstrate that this class of hardware can be flown successfully. This includes qualification of the piezos for launch, and for the space environment; the design and qualification of low-power flight piezo drivers; and design and implementation of the control systems
[en] A potential theory is presented for the problem of two moving circular cylinders, with possibly different radii, large motions, immersed in an perfect stagnant fluid. We show that the fluid force is the superposition of an added mass term, related to the time variations of the potential, and a quadratic term related to its spatial variations. We provide new simple and exact analytical expressions for the fluid added mass coefficients, in which the effect of the confinement is made explicit. The self-added mass (resp. cross-added mass) is shown to decrease (resp. increase) with the separation distance and increase (resp. decreases) with the radius ratio. We then consider the case in which one cylinder translates along the line joining the centers with a constant speed. We show that the two cylinders are repelled from each other, with a force that diverges to infinity at impact. We extend our approach to the case in which one cylinder is imposed a sinusoidal vibration. We show that the force on the stationary cylinder and the vibration displacement have opposite (resp. identical) axial (resp. transverse) directions. For large vibration amplitudes, this force is strongly altered by the nonlinear effects induced by the spatial variations of the potential. The force on the vibrating cylinder is in phase with the imposed displacement and is mainly driven by the added mass term. The results of this paper are of particular interest for engineers who need to understand the essential features associated with the vibration of a solid body in a still fluid. (authors)
[en] Cavitation is the most serious problem in developing high-speed turbopump, and inducer is often used to avoid cavitation in main impeller. Thus, inducer is always operating in the worst cavitation condition. If it is possible to control and suppress cavitation in inducer by some new device, it might be possible to suppress cavitation occurring in any type of pumps. The purpose of present study is to develop a new effective method of controlling and suppressing cavitation in inducer using shallow grooves, which is named 'J-Groove'. J-Groove is installed on the casing wall near the blade tip to use the pressure difference between high pressure region and low pressure region of the inducer in an axial direction. The results show that proper combination of backward-swept inducer with J-Groove improves suction performance of turbopump remarkably in the range of partial flow rate as well as designed flow rate. The rotating backflow cavitation occurring in the range of low flow rate and the cavitation surge occurring in the vicinity of the best efficiency point can be almost suppressed by installing J-Groove
[en] A program of steady-state and transient performance analysis for a 200kW-class small turboshaft engine with free power turbine was developed. An existing turbojet engine was used for the gas generator of the developed turboshaft engine, which was modified to satisfy performance requirements of this turboshaft engine. To verify the accuracy of steady-state performance program for this engine: the program was applied to the gas turbine test unit of the same type, and the analysis results were compared with experimental results. The developed transient performance analysis program using the CMF(Constant Mass Flow) method was utilized to analyze the cases of step increase and ramp increase of the fuel
[en] In the purpose of discovering causes of high vibrations and long cracks on stay vanes of the turbines at HPP 'Iron Gate I' measuring of stresses in the upper zone and in the lower zone along the stay ring are completed. Investigations performed some 20 years ago, in order to find out the excitation of vibrations, included measurements of the pressure along the trailing edge and stresses on stay vanes. The main frequency was about 36 Hz, which is very close to the natural frequencies of some stay vanes. It was concluded that there were two excitations, one belonging to Karman vortexes and the other to attack flow of the guide vanes, both with very close frequencies, causing beating oscillations. Modification of the stay vanes was made by grinding of the convex part of the trailing edges until half-circular concave of the same radius of 25 mm was reached. On site measurements performed at one unit, with original and modified trailing edge, with the same measuring devices, at the same measuring points and at the nearly same operating regimes. Influence of the modification on the static and dynamic stresses of the stay vanes, as well as their frequencies of the oscillations, is shown in the paper.
[en] This paper presents a numerical analysis of flow in a 2 jet Pelton turbine with horizontal axis. The analysis was done for the model at several operating points in different operating regimes. The results were compared to the results of a test of the model. Analysis was performed using ANSYS CFX-12.1 computer code. A k-ω SST turbulent model was used. Free surface flow was modelled by two-phase homogeneous model. At first, a steady state analysis of flow in the distributor with two injectors was performed for several needle strokes. This provided us with data on flow energy losses in the distributor and the shape and velocity of jets. The second step was an unsteady analysis of the runner with jets. Torque on the shaft was then calculated from pressure distribution data. Averaged torque values are smaller than measured ones. Consequently, calculated turbine efficiency is also smaller than the measured values, the difference is about 4 %. The shape of the efficiency diagram conforms well to the measurements.
[en] The paper presents a new method for the analysis of the cavitational behaviour of hydraulic turbomachines. This new method allows determining the coefficient of the cavitation inception and the cavitation sensitivity of the turbomachines. We apply this method to study the cavitational behaviour of a large storage pump. By plotting in semi-logarithmic coordinates the vapour volume versus the cavitation coefficient, we show that all numerical data collapse in an exponential manner. This storage pump is located in a power plant and operating without the presence of the developed cavitation is vital. We investigate the behaviour of the pump from the cavitational point of view while the pump is operating for variable discharge. A distribution of the vapour volume upon the blade of the impeller is presented for all the four operating points. It can be seen how the volume of vapour evolves from one operating point to another. In order to study the influence of the cavitation phenomena upon the pump, the evolution of the pumping head against the cavitation coefficient is presented. That will show how the pumping head drops while the cavitation coefficient decreases. From analysing the data obtained from the numerical simulation it results that the cavitation phenomena is present for all the investigated operating points. By analysis of the slope of the curve describing the evolution of the vapour volume against the cavitation coefficient we determine the cavitation sensitivity of the pump for each operating point. It is showed that the cavitation sensitivity of the investigated storage pump increases while the flow rate decreases.
[en] In the present paper, we focus on the flow computation of a low head Propeller turbine at a wide range of design and off-design operating conditions. First, we will present the results on the efficiency hill chart prediction of the Propeller turbine and discuss the consequences of using non-homologous blade geometries for the CFD simulation. The flow characteristics of the entire turbine will be also investigated and compared with experimental data at different measurement planes. Two operating conditions are selected, the first one at the best efficiency point and the second one at part load condition. At the same time, for the same selected operating points, the numerical results for the entire turbine simulation will be compared with flow simulation with our standard stage calculation approach which includes only guide vane, runner and draft tube geometries.
[en] In the framework of the consortium of R and D on hydraulic machines launched by the LAMH (Hydraulic Machines Laboratory of Laval University) in November 2007, a five holes unsteady pressure probe using embedded pressure sensors has been developed. Such probe allows us to obtain the unsteady static pressure, total pressure and the three flow velocity components. This paper aims to present this new five holes unsteady pressure probe, used and results for a propeller turbine.