Results 1 - 10 of 3675
Results 1 - 10 of 3675. Search took: 0.044 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Research has demonstrated the toxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg), yet molecular mechanisms underlying its toxicity are not completely understood. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) offers a unique biological model to explore mechanisms of MeHg toxicity given many advantages associated with its ease of use and genetic power. Since our previous work indicated neurotoxic resistance of C. elegans to MeHg, the present study was designed to examine molecular mechanisms associated with this resistance. We hypothesized MeHg would induce expression of gst, hsp or mtl in vivo since glutathione (GSH), heat shock proteins (HSPs), and metallothioneins (MTs) have shown involvement in MeHg toxicity. Our studies demonstrated a modest, but significant increase in fluorescence in gst-4::GFP and mtl-1::GFP strains at an acute, low L1 MeHg exposure, whereas chronic L4 MeHg exposure induced expression of gst-4::GFP and hsp-4::GFP. Knockout gst-4 animals showed no alterations in lethality sensitivity compared to wildtype animals whereas mtl knockouts displayed increased sensitivity to MeHg exposure. GSH levels were increased by acute MeHg treatment and depleted with chronic exposure. We also demonstrate that MeHg induces hormesis, a phenotype whereby a sublethal exposure to MeHg rendered C. elegans resistant to subsequent exposure to the organometal. The involvement of gst-4, hsp-4, mtl-1, and mtl-2 in hormesis was examined. An increase in gst-4::GFP expression after a low-dose acute exposure to MeHg indicated that gst-4 may be involved in this response. Our results implicate GSH, HSPs, and MTs in protecting C. elegans from MeHg toxicity and show a potential role of gst-4 in MeHg-induced hormesis.
[en] The Zeeman splitting of the conduction band in the HgTe quantum wells both with normal and inverted spectrum has been studied experimentally in a wide electron density range. The simultaneous analysis of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in low magnetic fields at different tilt angles and of the shape of the oscillations in moderate magnetic fields gives a possibility to find the ratio of the Zeeman splitting to the orbital one and anisotropy of -factor. It is shown that the ratios of the Zeeman splitting to the orbital one are close to each other for both types of structures, with a normal and inverted spectrum and they are close enough to the values calculated within kP method. In contrast, the values of -factor anisotropy in the structures with normal and inverted spectra are strongly different and for both cases differ significantly from the calculated ones. We assume that such disagreement with calculations is a result of the interface inversion asymmetry in the HgTe quantum well, which is not taken into account in the kP calculations.
[en] Highlights: • Study of quantum oscillations of anomalous Hall resistance of donor electron system. • Quantum oscillations detected in mercury selenide crystals with cobalt impurities. • The oscillations are periodic in the inverse magnetic field and have large amplitude. • Theory based on the concept of thermodynamic anomalous Hall effect is provided. - Abstract: The given report is devoted to the study of anomalous Hall resistance of donor electron system of hybridized states of transition element impurities of low concentration in quantum oscillation regime. There presented theoretical description of predicted specific behaviors on the base of the ideas about thermodynamic anomalous Hall effect. In experiments on mercury selenide crystals with cobalt impurities of low concentration one revealed the quantum oscillations of anomalous contribution to the Hall resistance corresponding to the developed concepts.
[en] The magnetoabsorption and interband photoconductivity spectra of HgTe/CdHgTe quantum wells exhibiting p-type conductivity are studied at different temperatures. It is shown that, for a sample with a normal band structure, the long-wavelength edge of the spectra shifts to higher energies with temperature increase, indicating an increase of the band gap in the quantum well. For a sample with an inverted band structure, it is for the first time found that the long-wavelength cut-off shifts to lower energies due to the topological phase transition from the inverted band structure to the normal structure with temperature increase. The experimental data are in agreement with the results of theoretical band-structure calculations based on the Kane model.
[en] Three-dimensional (3D) HgTe is a semimetal which is charge-neutral when the Fermi energy is at the touching point between the light-hole and heavy-hole Γ8 bands at the Brillouin zone center. With applied strain a gap of about 20 meV opens up between the light-hole and heavy-hole bands, so that strained 3D HgTe is expected to be a 3D topological insulator with Dirac-like surface states. In most of 3D topological insulators the observation of surface charge transport is obscured by the bulk conductivity. The voltage applied to the gate on top of the HgTe structure allows the suppression of the bulk transport contribution, thus only the surface electrons can be accessed in transport when the Fermi energy is shifted into the gap. The self-consistent calculations of the band structure and density of states for a strained HgTe layer have been done for different values of the gate voltage.
[en] The spectrum of the Tamm surface states of Hgsub(1-x)Cdsub(x)Te films is studied. Observed is a strong difference between the spectrum of an asymmetric surface state both in the parabolic limit and in a strong nonparabolic case on the one hand and the spectrum of bulk electrons on the other
[en] The photocurrent characteristics of HgTe nanoparticle (NP) thin films fabricated on glass substrates were investigated under the illumination of 1.3 µm wavelength light in this work. The photocurrent obtained from an NP thin film with a vertical structure was 119 µA in magnitude at an applied voltage of 2 V. The magnitude of the photocurrent for an NP thin film with a lateral structure was 23.8 nA at 10 V. Nevertheless, the relative magnitude of the photocurrent measured as a function of the chopping frequency was largely the same for the thin films with both the lateral and the vertical structures. The frequency-dependent photocurrent mechanism of the NP thin films will be discussed in detail in this paper
[en] A 3-year strategic planning process was undertaken in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to develop a research and technology development approach that can help guide mercury remediation in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Mercury remediation is a high priority for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management because of large historical losses of mercury to the environment at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Because of the extent of mercury losses and the complexities of mercury transport and fate in the stream environment, the success of conventional options for mercury remediation in the downstream sections of EFPC is uncertain. The overall Oak Ridge mercury remediation strategy focuses on mercury treatment actions at Y-12 in the short-term and research and technology development to evaluate longer-term solutions in the downstream environment. The technology development strategy is consistent with a phased, adaptive management paradigm and DOE's Technology Readiness Level guidelines. That is, early evaluation includes literature review, site characterization, and small-scale studies of a broad number of potential technologies. As more information is gathered, technologies that may have the most promise and potential remediation benefit will be chosen for more extensive and larger-scale pilot testing before being considered for remedial implementation. Field and laboratory research in EFPC is providing an improved level of understanding of mercury transport and fate processes in EFPC that will inform the development of site-specific remedial technologies. Technology development has centered on developing strategies that can mitigate the primary factors affecting mercury risks in the stream: (1) the amount of inorganic mercury available to the 1 This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan).stream system, (2) the conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmercury, and (3) the bioaccumulation of methylmercury through the food web. Given the downstream complexities and interdependencies between sources and processes in EFPC, no one task or approach is likely to solve the mercury problem in the creek, thus highlighting the importance of using an integrated, systems-based approach to develop remedial solutions. (authors)