Results 1 - 10 of 1976
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[en] Co-morbid depression in diabetics is associated with hyperglycaemia, diabetic complications and poor compliance. Aim of study is to access the frequency of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in adults with type 1 and 2 diabetes and find their association with gender and age of the patient. Method: It was a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in outpatient department of CMH Lahore for a period of six months. We included patients diagnosed with diabetes type 1 or 2 along with depressive symptoms. Any known case of depressive or personality disorder diagnosed before the onset of diabetes and those having a significant known medical history prior to/along with the development of diabetes were excluded from the study. Depression was gauged using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-IV (DSM-IV) criteria. Chi square test was used to access the association between depression among diabetics with age and gender. Results: A total of 340 patients, 191 (56.2%) males and 149 (43.8%) females were included, out of which 304 (90.9%) qualified DSM-IV criteria for having depression. Out of 191 males, 160 presented with depressive symptoms whereas all female diabetics had depression. Chi-square value for gender association was 27 (statistically significant, p=0.000) and for age Chi-square value was 1.391, (statistically significant, p=0.014) with a peak at 55 years of age and a count of 40 patients. Conclusion: Presence of diabetes increases the frequency of depression along with significant association of age and gender of diabetics with co-morbid depression. (author)
[en] Retinal reactive gliosis is an important pathological feature of diabetic retinopathy. Identifying the underlying mechanisms causing reactive gliosis will be important for developing new therapeutic strategies for treating diabetic retinopathy. Herein, we show that long noncoding RNA-RNCR3 knockdown significantly inhibits retinal reactive gliosis. RNCR3 knockdown leads to a marked reduction in the release of several cytokines. RNCR3 knockdown alleviates diabetes mellitus-induced retinal neurodegeneration, as shown by less apoptotic retinal cells and ameliorative visual function. RNCR3 knockdown could also decrease Müller glial cell viability and proliferation, and reduce the expression of glial reactivity-related genes including GFAP and vimentin in vitro. Collectively, this study shows that RNCR3 knockdown may be a promising strategy for the prevention of diabetes mellitus-induced retinal neurodegeneration. - Highlights: • RNCR3 knockdown inhibits retinal reactive gliosis. • RNCR3 knockdown causes a significant change in cytokine profile. • RNCR3 knockdown alleviates diabetes mellitus-induced retinal neurodegeneration. • RNCR3 knockdown affects Müller glial cell function in vitro.
[en] Retinal microvascular abnormality is an important pathological feature of diabetic retinopathy. Herein, we report the role of lncRNA-RNCR3 in diabetes mellitus-induced retinal microvascular abnormalities. We show that RNCR3 is significantly up-regulated upon high glucose stress in vivo and in vitro. RNCR3 knockdown alleviates retinal vascular dysfunction in vivo, as shown by decreased acellular capillaries, decreased vascular leakage, and reduced inflammatory response. RNCR3 knockdown decreases retinal endothelial cell proliferation, and reduces cell migration and tube formation in vitro. RNCR3 regulates endothelial cell function through RNCR3/KLF2/miR-185-5p regulatory network. RNCR3 inhibition may be a treatment option for the prevention of diabetes mellitus-induced retinal microvascular abnormalities. - Highlights: • RNCR3 expression is significantly up-regulated upon high glucose stress. • RNCR3 knockdown alleviates retinal vascular dysfunction in vivo. • RNCR3 regulates retinal endothelial cell function in vitro. • RNCR3 regulates retinal endothelial cell function via RNCR3/KLF2/miR-185-5p pathway.
[en] Heart rate variability (HRV) refers to the magnitude of the fluctuation in the number of heart beats per minute in conjunction with respiration. HRV with deep breathing (HRVdb) has recently become a popular non-invasive research tool in cardiology. This study was carried out to determine and compare the HRV in patients with Type 2 DM with those of Non diabetic controls. Methods: Sixty diabetic patients attending out patient department in Karnataka Institute of Diabetology, Bangalore and 60 age-matched controls were enrolled. HRV was performed on all the subjects and the results obtained were compared between the groups. The One minute HRV was analysed during deep breathing and defined as the difference in beats/minute between the shortest and the longest heart rate interval measured by lead II electrocardiographic recording during six cycles of deep breathing. Results: Statistically significant decrease in mean minimal heart rate and 1 minute HRV (16.30 +- 6.42 vs 29.33 +- 8.39) was observed during deep breathing among Type 2 Diabetic patients on comparison with that of healthy controls. There was no significant difference in mean maximal heart rate between the groups. Conclusion: Significant decrease in HRV in Type 2 DM patients is suggestive of reduced parasympathetic activity or an imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic neural activity in them. Hence HRVdb provides a sensitive screening measure for parasympathetic dysfunction in many autonomic disorders. (author)
[en] The concept of risk estimation of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is helpful for clinician to identifying high risk populations for their effective treatment. Latest studies recommended only initiating cardio-protective treatment in diabetic patients based on personalized CHD risk estimates so as to reduce undue harm from overly aggressive risk factor modification. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UK PDS) Risk Engine is a widely used tool to assess the risk of Cardio Vascular diseases (CVD) in diabetics. The literature search so far did not reveal any study of risk assessment among Pakistani Diabetics. Methods: This descriptive study is based on the data of 470 type-2 diabetics seen in Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore during 2011. The data of these 470 patients was analyzed through UKPDS Risk Engine. CHD risk was calculated. Results: The 10 years risk of CHD, fatal CHD, stroke and fatal stroke was 9.4%, 4.4%, 1.7% and 0.2% respectively. Conclusions: The present study show a lower risk of CVD occurring among Pakistani diabetics as compared to studies from western countries. (author)
[en] Objective: To determine the sequence variant of TLL1 gene (rs1503298, T > C) in three British cohorts (PREDICT, UDACS and ED) of patients with type-2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in order to assess its association with coronary heart disease (CHD). Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: UCL, London, UK. Participants were genotyped in 2011-2012 for TLL1 SNP. Samples and related information were previously collected in 2001-2003 for PREDICT, and in 2001-2002 for UDACS and ED groups. Methodology: Patients included in PREDICT (n=600), UDACS (n=1020) and ED (n=1240) had Diabetes. TLL1 SNP (rs1503298, T > C) was genotyped using TaqMan technology. Allele frequencies were compared using c2 test, and tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The risk of disease was assessed from Odds ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI). Moreover, for the PREDICT cohort, the SNP association was tested with Coronary Artery Calcification (CAC) scores. Results: No significant association was found for this SNP with CHD or CAC scores in these cohorts. Conclusion: This SNP could not be confirmed as a risk factor for CHD in T2DM patients. However, the low power of the small sample size available is a limitation to the modest effect on risk. Further studies in larger samples would be useful. (author)
[en] We have described the one-pot synthesis of biologically active pelanserine starting from isatoic anhydride. Two naturally occurring alkaloids goshuyuamide II and wuchuyuamide II were also synthesized by a convergent sequence starting from isatoic anhydride. The overall yield of 2 was 51% in a 3-step reaction, and the yield of 3 was 40% in a 4-step reaction. Quinazolinediones are important heterocycles and have been shown to possess pharmacologically interesting properties, displaying, for example, anti-hypertensive, antidiabetic, and immunosuppressive activities. Among these, synthetic pelanserine (TR2515) is a well established potent anti-hypertensive agent, having activity comparable to the clinically used ketanserin. Goshuyuamide II is isolated from Evodia officinalis and E. rutaecarpa. Wuchuyuamide II is isolated as a racemate from the fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa. These plants have long been used as a traditional Chinese drugs (Chinese name 'Wu-Zhu-Yu') in the treatment of headaches, abdominal pain, dysentery, postpartum haemorrhage, and amenorrhea. This range of important biological activities and properties has stimulated research into the synthesis of pelanserine, goshuyuamide II, and wuchuyuamide II
[en] Type II diabetes mellitus is a common problem and is sometimes associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) due to compression of median nerve at wrist. Electrophysiological tests are frequently used for its diagnosis. In this work, F-wave minimal latency (FWML) difference between median and ulnar nerve and F-ratio is used to facilitate the diagnosis and severity of CTS in type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Thirty control cases were selected who were physically fit for normal electrophysiological values. Thirty-two patients with a long history of type II diabetes mellitus were studied for electro-diagnostic tests. All patients had clinical evidence of CTS. Among all diabetics about 20 cases had poor glycaemic control (HbA1c>7.5). F-wave minimal latency (FWML) were measured in median and ulnar nerves and F-ratio of median nerve were also noted. The mean values in different groups were compared using t-test and p greater or equal to 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In control group, the ulnar FWML was either equal or slightly longer that the median FWML value. In CTS group with type II diabetes mellitus the FWML value of median nerve were significantly longer than FWML of the ulnar nerve. Moreover, in uncontrolled diabetic patients the FWML values was very much longer than controlled group. Similarly the F-ratio of median nerve was significantly low. Conclusion: In addition to the specific criteria for CTS diagnosis, the parameters like FWML difference in median and ulnar nerve with reduced F-ratio of median nerve can be useful in establishing the diagnosis and severity of CTS in type II diabetes mellitus. (author)
[en] Urban and migrant Indians are experiencing a rapidly escalating epidemic of diabetes and CHD. This may be related to high body fat percentage in Indians and its central distribution which have been shown to be detrimental for metabolism
[en] To determine the acceptance of retinal screening, Laser uptake and subsequent follow-up in diabetic patients attending the Diabetes Centre of Diabetic Association of Pakistan (DAP), Karachi. Study Design: Observational case series. Place and Duration of Study: Diabetic Centre of Diabetic Association of Pakistan (DAP), Karachi, from January 2011 to December 2012. Methodology: All the diabetic patients were screened for Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) with non-Mydriatic Fundus Camera (NMFC). Patients with DR were examined by the ophthalmologist using fundus lens and slit lamp. DR was graded for severity on the basis of modified Airlie House Classification. Patients with Sight Threatening Diabetic Retinopathy (STDR) were advised Laser treatment. Each patient was followed-up for at least 6 months. The records of patients recommended Laser were retrieved, and called for re-examination. Results: Retinal screening was accepted by all of the 8368 registered diabetics attending DAP Centre. On fundus photography, 21.2% (1777) individuals were found to have DR. Seven hundred and five (39.5%) patients were found to have STDR. Laser was advised to 96.4% (680) of STDR patients; amongst whom 70.5% (480) accepted Laser treatment. Out of 480 patients who had Laser treatment, 21.2% (107) turned out for follow-up after 6 months. Conclusion: Acceptance of retinal screening and Laser application was good; but follow-up was suboptional. (author)