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[en] This paper uses the panel data of energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (GDP) for 51 countries from 1971 to 2005. These countries are divided into three groups: low income group, lower middle income group and upper middle income group countries. Firstly, a relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is investigated by employing panel cointegration method. Secondly, panel causality test is applied to investigate the way of causality between the energy consumption and economic growth. Finally, we test whether there is a strong or weak relationship between these variables by using method. The empirical results of this study are as follows: i) Energy consumption and GDP are cointegrated for all three income group countries. ii) The panel causality test results reveal that there is long-run Granger causality running from GDP to EC for low income countries and there is bidirectional causality between EC and GDP for middle income countries. iii) The estimated cointegration factor, β, is not close to 1. In other words, no strong relation is found between energy consumption and economic growth for all income groups considered in this study. The findings of this study have important policy implications and it shows that this issue still deserves further attention in future research.
[en] Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n=20). Most of the interventions were community based (n=16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n=16), with social cognitive theory and trans theoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions.
[en] The intent of the presentation would be to share our views that the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, as a court of record and an administrative tribunal with powers of quasi-judicial nature, is empowered to satisfy the constitutional duty to consult with Aboriginal people in Canada for nuclear related projects that fall within its mandate. We would also touch on the fact that the Commission is also responsible to conduct environmental assessments of uranium and nuclear related projects that may affect Aboriginal peoples, their traditional territories or their traditional way of life. Recent Canadian court decisions have recognized that administrative tribunals, such as the Commission, may be the appropriate agencies to address the duty to consult Aboriginal peoples on behalf of the Crown under section 35 of the Canadian Constitution (1867). The Supreme Court of Canada has also recognized that administrative tribunals such as the Commission may have the statutory authority to decide questions of law for subject matters that fall within their mandate and expertise. Consequently, it is now generally accepted that the Commission has jurisdiction to consider if the duty to consult with Aboriginal Peoples is indeed satisfied. This is of particular importance given that the Commission has the exclusive jurisdiction in Canada to regulate all matters related to nuclear including the implementation of international obligations Canada has agreed to. Failure to appropriately consult with Aboriginal peoples may also result in a constitutional challenge where Canadian courts may reverse a licensing decision in relation to major projects such as a uranium mine, a nuclear power facility or a deep geologic repository. (author)
[en] Faced with climate change what is the position of scientists, of economists and of political decision makers? And the one of philosophers, of moralists, and of theologians? Finally, what is the position of anyone of us? This question of ethical aspect has been rarely tackled in France so far. Prepared after a colloquium held in Paris in 2009, this book combines scientifical, philosophical, moral and theological perspectives accessible to anyone. It stresses on the novelty and urgency of the ethical thought concerning a question having a strong impact of the humanity future, and more particularly on the future of the most vulnerable of us. If the human being is capable to mobilize himself collectively for a universal cause, he can stay on individualistic positions as well, in particular when he has to care of the fate of the generations to come. This book is a philosophical-scientifical thought which aims at bringing together four main views on this issue. (J.S.)
[en] We explore the implications that alternative pathways for human population and economic development have for the role of Asia in reference no-climate-policy scenarios and scenarios in which climate forcing is limited. We consider three different pathways of socioeconomic development, which we refer to as Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) and four different levels of limitation on climate forcing, which we refer to as Shared Climate Policy Assumptions (SPAs). SSPs are differentiated by population and economic growth assumptions, while SPAs are differentiated on the level of radiative forcing in the year 2100. Regardless of the scenarios we examined Asia plays a central role in shaping the world's future with nearly half of the world's people and more than half of the world's economic activity and energy consumption. The future of Asia and the world are dramatically different across the various combinations of SSPs and SPAs. High population worlds place significant stress on Asian resources and ecosystems. In high population SSPs the poorest members of the population face high energy and food prices and the more stringent the level of emissions mitigation, the more stress poor populations experience, though the more stringent the emissions mitigation, the larger the area of unmanaged ecosystems that are preserved. - Highlights: ► We explore the implications of alternative population and economic pathways for the role of Asia. ► High population world places significant stress on Asian resources and ecosystems. ► In high population world, the poorest members of the population face high energy and food prices. ► The greater level of emissions mitigation, the more stress poor people experience. ► The greater the emissions mitigation, the larger the area of unmanaged ecosystems preserved.
[en] This presentation focuses on the consultation processes between industry, government and First Nations communities regarding resource development. The expectations of the Crown are to facilitate capacity building within First Nations, to promote traditional use studies and to participate with industry proponents on certain consultation issues. The role of industry is to encourage partnerships between established contractors and First Nations contracting firms to allow First Nations firms to grow and experience success under the guidance of a mentor company. It is important to realize that solid First Nations relations are the key to shorter time lines and lower costs in developing projects. However, consultation and involvement must be 'real' with benefits and participation that fall within the First Nations Communities' definition of success
[en] A broad overview of the Delgamuukw decision as it relates to Aboriginal rights and title was presented. It is clear that the Delgamuukw decision, rendered in December 1997 by the Supreme Court of Canada, has significantly changed the landscape of resource development in British Columbia. In recognition of this fact, in September 1998, the provincial government issued new operational guidelines for consultation with First Nations, to help those dealing with claims of aboriginal title to meet the requirements for consultation as set out in the judgement. This speaker explains some practical aspects of these new requirements. refs