Results 1 - 10 of 1774
Results 1 - 10 of 1774. Search took: 0.026 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Animals in poor health condition are not relevant biological models. The current study focused on the use of the clearance rate of Mytilus edulis to assess the gross physiological condition of individuals maintained in stressful experimental conditions. This approach was developed in a new, highly controlled experimental exposure device designed to investigate individual responses in aquatic ecotoxicological studies. Both clearance rate values and immune parameters analysis indicated that the health condition of mussels kept in 50 ml tubes for 24 h or 48 h was not altered compared to controls, while most parameters were depressed after 72 h. Moreover, this study confirms the relevance of flow cytometric for the measurement of clearance rate compared to techniques utilizing microscopy. Current results prompted us to perform further 24 h chemical exposure using this 'in tubo' device. - Test-tube mussels offer a new exposure design for immunotoxicology
[en] Studies by the University of Lowell Radiation Laboratory and the US National Marine Fisheries Service N.E. Laboratory in Gloucester, MA on softshelled clams (Mya arenaria) demonstrated the effectiveness of low to medium doses of Cobalt 60 source gamma irradiation in the inactivation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. Post-irradiation survival and organoleptic studies when extended to hardshelled clams (Mercinaria mercenaria) and American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) showed no significant decline in consumer qualities or 6 day post irradiation survival in oysters at doses of up to 3.0 kGy. The capacities of the American oyster to sustain relatively high doses of gamma irradiation were demonstrated by 6 day post-exposure survivorship values of greater than 90% for samples receiving 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 kGy. Initial studies of inactivation of Polio I virus and a simian rotavirus (SA-11) was conducted in both hardshelled clams and oysters. Of greatest interest was the behavior of Hepatitis A virus (HAV), in live, irradiated shellfish. The average log decrement value for HAV in oysters was calculated at 2.0 kGy. From these data it appears that doses of up to 2 kGy can be applied to: reduce or eliminate bacterial pathogens, reduce the infectivity of human viral pathogens by one or more orders of magnitude, and preserve market qualities of longevity, appearance, odor, taste and texture. 23 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs
[en] Autophagy is a catabolic process essential for preserving cellular homeostasis, and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved during tissue development and cancer progression. In arsenite-treated human hepatic epithelial (L-02) cells, arsenite reduced the autophagic flux, which caused accumulation of p62, an adaptor and receptor of autophagy. Further, in arsenite-transformed L-02 cells, the levels of E-cadherin were attenuated, but the levels of vimentin, which is expressed in mesenchymal cells, and Snail, a transcription regulator of the EMT, were up-regulated. Thus, after chronic exposure of L-02 cells to arsenite, the impaired autophagic flux induced the accumulation of p62, which up-regulated the expression of Snail, a protein involved in arsenite-induced EMT of these cells. Knockdown of p62 by siRNA reversed the arsenite-induced EMT and decreased the capacities of arsenite-transformed L-02 cells for colony formation and invasion and migration. Therefore, in arsenite-induced transformation of L-02 cells, the accumulation of p62, by impairing autophagic flux, mediates the EMT via Snail. These results provide a previously unknown mechanism underlying arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity. - Highlights: • Impaired autophagic flux induces the accumulation of p62 in arsenite-treated L-02 cells. • The EMT is associated with arsenite-induced transformation in L-02 cells. • p62 mediates the EMT via Snail in arsenite-induced transformation of L-02 cells.