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[en] The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs
[en] The underlying need for additional supplies of natural gas, both and pipeline and LNG , will be continue to expand in the Asia Pacific region. Spurred by expected development of LNG markets in Thailand,India,and coastal China, the demand for LNG could more than double by 2010. To meet the LNG needs of the future, numerous LNG grass roots and expansion projects are underway or firmly planned. Collectively , these projects could supply nearly million tonnes of additional LNG by 2005-2010. If new geographical markets can not be developed (for whatever reasons) during this time frame, however, some currently planned projects could falter or be under utilized. (Author) 3 figs
[en] This paper reviews the distribution of gas reserves both worldwide and the Middle East. As more gas is produced in difficultenvironments, either at long distances from markets or from more complex reservoirs there is a need to curtail costs by improving exploration success, reducing well costs and by increasing the reserves produced per well. Continuing advances in technology can make a major impact in achieving these goals. Historically, the innovative use of technology has resulted in significant increases in the value of oil and gas developments. (Author). 5 fig
[en] Economic estimation of methods of gas condensate deposit mining was performed according to criteria of market economy. Determination of indices of cash assets and profitability norms is given
[en] Advances in sensor technology have enabled companies to make significant progress towards achieving condition-based maintenance (CBM). CBM provides the opportunity to perform maintenance actions more effectively. However, scheduling maintenance at the unit level may imply a high maintenance frequency at the asset level, which can be costly and undesirable for safety reasons. In this paper, we consider systems consisting of multiple critical units for which a strict and conservative maintenance strategy is enforced. Although this implies that benefits cannot be obtained by delaying maintenance activities, the clustering of them can be beneficial. We consider two simple, practical systems for condition monitoring that involve either one signal (alarm) or two signals (alert, alarm). Our analysis and results provide general insights into when and how to cluster maintenance operations, with the objective of minimizing the total maintenance costs. Moreover, they show that clustering is essential for a broad range of circumstances, including those at a considered real-life case of equipment maintenance at Europe's largest gas field. - Highlights: • The clustering of maintenance activities in a multi-unit CBM setting is studied. • General insights into when and how to cluster maintenance operations are provided. • A real-life case of equipment maintenance at Europe's largest gas field is considered.
[en] The relationships between gas and liquid hydrocarbon fuels are interesting.Gas can be and being used to boost oil production and recovery factors in oil fields. This is proper use of gas. Gas displaces oil as a fuel in energy markets but yields a low net back. If all gas and oil producers formed a single cartel they will produce oil first and delay gas. But they are not. As a result the drive for gas harms oil and there is therefore an opportunity cost which gas producers who, in many instances, are also oil exporters, should consider. The economics of gas often depend on the condensates. In some instance gas is the economics by-product of condensates and not the other way round. Thus more gas means also more oil supplies in international markets
[en] A number of Australian Pipeline Industry Association (APIA) members expressed concern with Australian Bureau of Agricultural Research (ABARE)'s report on Gas supply and Demand Balance to 2019-2020 and in particular its methodology and conclusions. APIA therefore commissioned ACIL Consulting to conduct a critique of the report and its conclusions. This critique confirmed APIA's initial view that the ABARE report paints an overly optimistic and potentially misleading picture of the productive capacity of existing Australian gas fields. Having already reached the conclusion that the Prime Minister's Natural Gas Task Force (the Home Review) appeared to be taking a very sanguine attitude towards gas supply and demand issues, APIA was concerned that policy-makers had concluded that major East-coast gas markets will be well supplied until 2020 at the earliest. The ABARE report presents a misleading picture on future directions and opportunities for natural gas demand. Its report is inconsistent with the supply capacities of our current fields, makes premature and unsupported assumptions about coal seam methane pricing, and adopts differing and unrealistic comparisons between major emerging supply sources
[en] It is often said that natural gas is abundant and that proven reserves would allow to produce gas with the same rate as today during the next 60-70 years. This observation comes from estimations having some uncertainties and it is thus legitimate to question about the date of occurrence of the gas production peak that some experts have fixed to 2020-2030. One can foresee that just before the gas peak and during the following years, the pressure on prices will be more or less important, depending on the reaction capacity of consuming countries. A meeting of the French gas association (AFG) was organized on November 8, 2005 on this topic. Its aim was to present an outlook of the reflexion works in this domain, to foresee the consequences of the paradigm change induced by the gas peak and the stakes for the consuming countries. This article summarizes the interventions given at this meeting and the debates with the audience during the round table. (J.S.)
[en] It is shown that reserves to production ratio, R/P, which optimizes development and maximizes present value, can be estimated using an equation containing the four variables of well initial production; rate, well costs, netback prices and discount rate. A sensitivity analysis of the optimization equation indicates that well costs and well productivity have the most influence on the optimum R/P. Improvements in technology beneficially affect well productivity and reduce costs, hence reducing capital requirements and producing an economic incentive to produce at low R/Ps. The influence of gas prices is considered less significant, but the expected increases in gas prices in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin will also act an an incentive to produce at low R/Ps. Recent gas discoveries in the Basin have been single well pools with high productivity and limited areal extent, which produce at low R/Ps. Continuation of this trend will cause further decrease in R/Ps. While this study assumed maximizing present value as the most likely objective, it is possible that regulators and producers have other objectives. It would be reasonable to expect that these alternative objectives will also favour producing at high rates and at low R/Ps. 2 tabs., 13 figs
[en] The Greater Natural Buttes tight natural gas field is an unconventional (continuous) accumulation in the Uinta Basin, Utah, that began production in the early 1950s from the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group. Three years later, production was extended to the Eocene Wasatch Formation. With the exclusion of 1100 non-productive ('dry') wells, we estimate that the final recovery from the 2500 producing wells existing in 2007 will be about 1.7 trillion standard cubic feet (TSCF) (48.2 billion cubic meters (BCM)). The use of estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) per well is common in assessments of unconventional resources, and it is one of the main sources of information to forecast undiscovered resources. Each calculated recovery value has an associated drainage area that generally varies from well to well and that can be mathematically subdivided into elemental subareas of constant size and shape called cells. Recovery per 5-acre cells at Greater Natural Buttes shows spatial correlation; hence, statistical approaches that ignore this correlation when inferring EUR values for untested cells do not take full advantage of all the information contained in the data. More critically, resulting models do not match the style of spatial EUR fluctuations observed in nature. This study takes a new approach by applying spatial statistics to model geographical variation of cell EUR taking into account spatial correlation and the influence of fractures. We applied sequential indicator simulation to model non-productive cells, while spatial mapping of cell EUR was obtained by applying sequential Gaussian simulation to provide multiple versions of reality (realizations) having equal chances of being the correct model. For each realization, summation of EUR in cells not drained by the existing wells allowed preparation of a stochastic prediction of undiscovered resources, which range between 2.6 and 3.4 TSCF (73.6 and 96.3 BCM) with a mean of 2.9 TSCF (82.1 BCM) for Greater Natural Buttes. A second approach illustrates the application of multiple-point simulation to assess a hypothetical frontier area for which there is no production information but which is regarded as being similar to Greater Natural Buttes.