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[en] The characteristics of a fusion breeder operating in the full mutualistic mode with a companion fission reactor are examined. For this purpose, the fissile and fusile fuel descriptions are combined with gross reactor core parameters of existing fission and proposed fusion reactors to permit an assessment of fusion energy yield, fissile fuel production rates, and overall systems conversion ratio. It is found that, under the full utilization of the energy and fuel transfer linkages, the fusion breeder possesses considerable merit. Optimal design features and operational procedures can lead to fuel doubling times of the order of days with fissile fuel production rates in the kg/MW-Y range. Tritium economy, specific fuel inventories, and fission reactor conversion ratios are found to be the determining factors
[en] The stabilizer code, one major family of quantum error-correcting codes (QECC), is specified by the joint eigenspace of a commuting set of Pauli observables. It turns out that noncommuting sets of Pauli observables can be used to construct more efficient QECCs, such as the entanglement-assisted QECCs, which are built directly from any linear classical codes whose detailed properties are needed to determine the parameters of the resulting quantum codes. Here we propose another family of QECCs, namely, the breeding QECCs, that also employ noncommuting sets of Pauli observables and can be built from any classical additive codes, either linear or nonlinear, with the advantage that their parameters can be read off directly from the corresponding classical codes. Besides, since nonlinear codes are generally more efficient than linear codes, our breeding codes have better parameters than those codes built from linear codes. The terminology is justified by the fact that our QECCs are related to the ordinary QECCs in exactly the same way that the breeding protocols are related to the hashing protocols in the entanglement purification.
[en] A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomics researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasms, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomics and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits
[en] This paper considers nuclear breeding systems (i.e., production of fissile fuel from fertile materials). The range of breeding technologies considered is deliberately wide. We include systems which breed by using internal neutron sources--a reactor-breeder, exemplified by the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR)--and systems which breed by using external neutron sources--exemplified in this paper primarily by hybrid fusion-fission breeders
[en] The national papers provide a useful data base for reference. However, due to the variety of system parameters and ground rules used it is difficult to summarize the main findings and particularly to draw general conclusions. For example, we do not recommend using absolute values for natural uranium requirements without further qualification as is done in the Summaries of Sub-group A and B reports. It will always be possible to find options with better figures of merit in this respect at the expense of some other feature such as fuel cost or capital cost. For the same reason we believe that the absolute values of uranium utilization and separative work requirements of tables 2, 6 and 7 in Section A and tables 3.1 A to E, 3.2 A and B, and 3.3 B in Section B should be treated with caution. For absolute values to be meaningful when comparing different reactor systems and fuel cycle options they must be based on uniform optimization procedures, common economic ground rules, and carefully checked calculational methods. This would require a second round effort, which is perhaps beyond the scope of the present INFCE study