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[en] Mammalian DNA polymerase δ (pol δ) is essential for DNA replication, though the functions of this smallest subunit of POLD4 have been elusive. We investigated pol δ activities in vitro and found that it was less active in the absence of POLD4, irrespective of the presence of the accessory protein PCNA. shRNA-mediated reduction of POLD4 resulted in a marked decrease in colony formation activity by Calu6, ACC-LC-319, and PC-10 cells. We also found that POLD4 reduction was associated with an increased population of karyomere-like cells, which may be an indication of DNA replication stress and/or DNA damage. The karyomere-like cells retained an ability to progress through the cell cycle, suggesting that POLD4 reduction induces modest genomic instability, while allowing cells to grow until DNA damage reaches an intolerant level. Our results indicate that POLD4 is required for the in vitro pol δ activity, and that it functions in cell proliferation and maintenance of genomic stability of human cells.
[en] Baculovirus DNA replication, transcription, and nucleocapsid assembly occur within a subnuclear structure called the virogenic stroma (VS) that consists of two subcompartments. Specific components of the VS sub-compartments have not been identified except for PP31, a DNA-binding protein that localizes specifically to the electron-dense region of VS. Here, we investigate the dynamic structure of VS using a GFP-tagged PP31 molecule (GFP-PP31). GFP-PP31 localizes to the VS throughout the course of infection. At later times post-infection, a PP31 reticulum distributed within VS was also apparent, indicating that VS sub-compartments compose a reticulate structure. Transient expression of PP31 with the viral proteins, IE1, LEF3, and P143, in uninfected cells resulted in the formation of a reticulate structure containing cellular chromatin and the spatial arrangements of the four proteins within the induced reticulum were the same as those within VS reticulum, suggesting that the two reticula are formed by a similar mechanism.
[en] In the research concerning the origin of life, the utilization of regularities of biological evolution is very important next to the chemical and biophysical notions, since the prebiological period. Among them, the law of neoteny and the principle of sociogenesis which have not been elaborated sufficiently from this point of view till now, are discussed here
[en] Radiations and chemicals attack the DNA in various ways. Ionizing radiation seems to induce damage in both strands on the same place so that mutations arise without segregation. Mutagenic chemicals on the other hand cuse base damage in one strand so that at least one DNA-replication is needed to fix the mutation. In this case replication of DNA, where the defects remain, seems to be the most critical step for production of mutations. (author)
[en] Current hypotheses concerning the breaking of mirror symmetry in the bioorganic world are reviewed critically. Two interrelated aspects of the problem, matrix structured homochiral macromolecules and enantiospecific functions capable of keeping homochiral structures replicating, are discussed. Two basic approaches to the symmetry breaking, namely the evolutionary selection and asymmetrical origin scenarios, are considered, whose underlying hypotheses are shown to be inherently inconsistent. 127 refs., 9 figs
[en] Two aspects of the chromatin repeat length (rl) are discussed: (i) Why is rl longer for slowly dividing cells than in rapidly dividing cells?, and (ii) Why is the temporal evolution of rl a decreasing function of time (t) in mammalian cortical neurons whereas it is an increasing function of t for granule cells around the time of birth? These questions are discussed in terms of a hypothesis which assumes a correlation between deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) packaging, transcription, and replication. (author). 27 refs
[en] Cdc7 expression repressor (CR)/periphilin has been originally cloned as an interactor with periplakin, a precursor of the cornified cell envelope, and suggested to constitute a new type of nuclear matrix. We here show that CR/periphilin is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein with speckled distribution. Overexpression of CR/periphilin induces S-phase arrest. Analysis of expression of regulators involved in DNA replication has revealed that both mRNA and protein expression of Cdc7, a regulator of the initiation and continuation of DNA replication, are markedly downregulated by overexpression of CR/periphilin. However, co-expression of Cdc7 only marginally rescues S-phase arrest induced by CR, indicating that CR retards S-phase progression by modifying expression of some genes including Cdc7, which are involved in progression of DNA replication or coordination of DNA replication and S-phase progression
[en] Cytophotometric measurements of nuclear DNA contents and morphometric analyses indicate that the level of endo polyploidy plays an important role in determining the maximum size, transcriptional and translational activity that the antheridial basal cell attains during successive stages of spermatogenesis in Chara vulgaris. During the proliferative period of antheridial development, the metabolic activity of basal cell, expressed as the total incorporation of radioactive uridine and leucine was found to increase gradually with the increasing DNA C-values, yet both the synthesis of RNA and then the synthesis of proteins become reduced at the stage preceding spermiogenesis. In accordance with some earlier data, the obtained results seem to support the hypothesis that regulatory mechanisms of symplasmic connections between the antheridium and a thallus participate in the regulation of morphogenesis of the male sex organs in Chara. (author). 15 refs, 13 figs