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[en] An edible lipid-chitosan film forming dispersion (FFD) was developed to delay ripening of guava. Four percent (v/v) of palm stearin (PS) and palm kernel olein (PKOo) in ratios of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0 were added to a chitosan solution base and applied on guava by dipping technique. Surface appearance, weight loss, firmness, carbon dioxide, oxygen and ethylene concentrations were evaluated every 3 days during 31 days of storage at chilled temperature (5±2 degree Celsius). An application of FFD on guava significantly (p<0.05) delayed chilling injury, reduced weight loss, maintained firmness, slowed down respiration and ethylene production as compared to uncoated guavas. PS:PKOo (75:25) coating was able to form compatible blends and showed good moisture and gas barrier properties when applied on guava surface, resulting in increased postharvest life of guava. (author)
[en] The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) on the 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester contents during deep-fat frying. Firstly, the potato samples were soaked in different concentrations of NaCl and they were fried in sunflower oils containing different concentrations of rosemary extract. Subsequently, repeated frying was carried out with sunflower oil enriched with rosemary extract. The frying oil and the oil extracted from potato samples were analyzed in terms of the contents of 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters according to DGF C VI 18 (10) method. The results demonstrated that the content of 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters in frying oil was not significantly affected by different NaCl and rosemary extract concentrations during short term frying; however, the amount of 3-MCPD esters was found to be lower for the potato crisps enriched with rosemary extract during repeated frying cycles.
[es]El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del extracto de romero (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) sobre los contenidos de 3-MCPD y ésteres de glicidol durante la fritura. En primer lugar, muestras de patatas se remojaron en diferentes concentraciones de NaCl y se frieron en aceites de girasol que contienen diferentes concentraciones de extracto de romero. Posteriormente, se realizaron frituras repetidas con aceite de girasol enriquecido con extracto de romero. El aceite de fritura y el aceite extraído de las muestras de patatas se analizaron en términos de los contenidos de 3-MCPD y ésteres de glicidol de acuerdo con el método DGF C VI 18. Los resultados demostraron que el contenido de 3-MCPD y ésteres de glicidol en el aceite de fritura no se vieron afectados significativamente por las diferentes concentraciones de NaCl a corto plazo, sin embargo, la cantidad de ésteres de 3-MCPD fue menor para las patatas fritas enriquecidas con extracto de romero durante los ciclos de fritura repetidas.
[en] The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been recognized as a crop with high potentials that can successfully meet future oil requirements of the country. Formulation of micronutrients (MN) based fertilizer, in terms of application rate and method, and uptake of MN by sunflower has the ability not only to ensure nutrients availability to plants particularly in MN-limiting environments but also can manipulate the environmental hazards associated with over inorganic fertilization. To support this view, clear experimental evidence is still lacking. In addition, the current experiments aimed to evaluate the influence of MN and its method of application on yield and yield components of sunflower cultivars/hybrids. Three sunflower cultivars (HO-1, Hysun-39 and Ausigold-62) along with three MN (Z, B and Fe) and two application methods (soil and foliar) were used in the experiment. Three Zn application rate (3, 5 and 8 kg ha-1) along with 0.75 kg ha-1 B and 0.30 kg Fe ha-1 were used in four combinations such as 0-0-0, 0-0.75-0.30, 0-0.75-0.30, 3-0.75-0.30, 5-0.75-0.30, 8-0.75-0.30 kg Z, B and Fe ha-1, respectively. A control (no MN) treatment was also included for comparison. Two year averaged study exhibited that foliar application of Zn, B and Fe at rate of 8-0.30-0.75 kg ha-1 increased stem girth, head diameter, number of seeds head-1, seed weight head-1, seed index, oil content and seed yield by 21%, 27%, 13%, 34%, 19%, 24 and 31%, respectively over control. Among cultivars/hybrids, the hybrids HO-1 and Hysun-39 had taller plants, seed weight head-1, seeds head-1 and earlier in flowering and maturity. Flowering and maturity was delayed in Ausi Gold-62 with higher seed index and oil content. It is concluded that foliar application of micronutrients at the rate of 8+0.75+0.30 Zn, B and Fe kg ha-1 had substantially improved yield and yield related traits of sunflower cultivars HO-1, Hysun-39 and Ausi gold-62. (author)
[en] Twelve sunflower genotypes viz. A-43, A-75, A-88, A-132, A-133, A-185, G-33, G-46, G-51, G-68, G-100 and HBRS-1 were grown in the research field of the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, during the year, 2005 following a triplicate randomized complete block design lay out. Variability among these genotypes was assessed for plant height (cm), number of leaves per plant, internodal length (cm), stem diameter at base (mm), head diameter (cm), head type, 100-Achene weight (g), achene weight per head (g) and oil contents (%). Genotypic and phenotypic correlations among these traits and their direct and indirect effects on achene weight per head were estimated. The genotypes were significantly different for all the traits studied. The genotype HBRS-1 had the best performance for most of the characters under discussion. Achene weight per head had positive and significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations with plant height, internodal length and head diameter. The correlations of 100-achene weight with stem diameter and head diameter were also positive and significant at both phenotypic and genotypic levels. Internodal length followed by stem diameter at base and head diameter had the highest direct effects on achene weight per head. 100-achene weight had high indirect effects on achene weight per head via stem diameter and head diameter. Stem diameter at base, head diameter and 100-achene weight can be used as indirect selection criteria for the improvement of achene yield. (author)
[en] Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) has been widely used to measure the performance of the production process. A well-performing company is a company that has a high OEE score. Increased the OEE score can be done by minimizing six big losses that greatly affect the score of OEE. In this paper, a framework to determine the actions needed to minimize the six big losses is recommended. The framework was then used to determine the action to minimize the six big losses in palm oil mills. A total of 7 actions were required. The highest ranked action, the most important action, was the improvement of raw material quality while the lowest ranked action was to increase the number of workers. (paper)
[en] Corrective maintenance i.e replacing or repairing the machine component after machine break down always done in a manufacturing company. It causes the production process must be stopped. Production time will decrease due to the maintenance team must replace or repair the damage machine component. This paper proposes a preventive maintenance’s schedule for a critical component of a critical machine of an crude palm oil and kernel company due to increase maintenance efficiency. The Reliability Engineering & Maintenance Value Stream Mapping is used as a method and a tool to analize the reliability of the component and reduce the wastage in any process by segregating value added and non value added activities. (paper)
[en] Crude cottonseed oil was spiked with 14C-chlorfenvinphos [2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)vinyl 14C-diethylphosphate] at 20 ppm and subjected to laboratory scale refining processes similar to those used in industry. Following neutralization and washing the residue declined to 9.6 ppm. This loss of residue probably occurred through hydrolysis by alkali. Bleaching led to a further reduction of residue to 4.4 ppm. Deodorization had very little effect on the residue level and the refined oil contained approximately 4 ppm of chlorfenvinphos equivalent (chlorfenvinphos and/or degradation products). It is concluded that alkali treatment and bleaching were highly efficient in removing a major part of the residue (80%) from the crude oil. (author). (Abstract only)
[en] The aim of this study was to assess genetic diversity within the set of 111 ricin genotypes using 13 RAPD primers. For differentiation of 111 ricin genotypes 13 RAPD primers were used. Amplification of genomic DNA of 111 genotypes using RAPD analysis yielded 102 fragments, with an average of 7.85 polymorphic fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments with RAPD primers ranged from 3 to 13, with the size of amplicons ranging from 100 to 1500 bp. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.491 to 0.898 with an average of 0.764 and diversity index (DI) value ranged from 0.576 to 0.900 with an average of 0.776. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared. In dendrogram separated unique genotype RM-32 from other 110 genotypes which were further grouped into 3 subclusters (1, 2, 3). Only four genotypes were not distinguished. Using more polymorphic RAPD markers genetically close genotypes can be distinguished. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of castor can be used for future breeding programs for increased oil production to meet the ever increasing demand of castor oil for industrial uses as well as for biodiesel production. (author)
[en] Palm oil, palm kernel oil and their fractions are currently being used globally in food products because of their versatility and cost-effectiveness. They are widely used in various food applications such as cooking oils, margarines, shortenings and vanaspati. In addition, they are vastly utilised in the confectionery industry especially in the chocolate confectionery. Due to the high price and inconsistent supply of cocoa butter, palm oil, palm kernel oil and their fractions have been used to produce cocoa butter alternatives (CBA) namely; cocoa butter equivalent (CBE), cocoa butter replacer (CBR) and cocoa butter substitutes (CBS) in which each one has its own strength for different confectionery applications. Technological developments in fractionation, interesterification and hydrogenation have brought palm oil, palm kernel oil and their fractions to a higher level of usage in the chocolate confectionery industry. Compilation of studies have shown that CBE, CBR and CBS can be produced from various technological paths to obtain the desired requirements. In addition, palm oil and its fractions are also suitable for other confectionery applications such as soft chocolate, chocolate syrup, ice cream coating and confectionery filling. (author)