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[en] The South China Sea Ocean Data Center (SCSODC) was founded in 2010 in order to improve collecting and managing of ocean data of the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO). The mission of SCSODC is to ensure the long term scientific stewardship of ocean data, information and products – collected through research groups, monitoring stations and observation cruises – and to facilitate the efficient use and distribution to possible users. However, data sharing and applications were limited due to the characteristics of distribution and heterogeneity that made it difficult to integrate the data. To surmount those difficulties, the Data Sharing System has been developed by the SCSODC using the most appropriate information management and information technology. The Data Sharing System uses open standards and tools to promote the capability to integrate ocean data and to interact with other data portals or users and includes a full range of processes such as data discovery, evaluation and access combining C/S and B/S mode. It provides a visualized management interface for the data managers and a transparent and seamless data access and application environment for users. Users are allowed to access data using the client software and to access interactive visualization application interface via a web browser. The architecture, key technologies and functionality of the system are discussed briefly in this paper. It is shown that the system of SCSODC is able to implement web visualization sharing and seamless access to ocean data in a distributed and heterogeneous environment
[en] Highlights: • Land-sourced nutrients have caused severe eutrophication in coastal China. • Coastal eutrophication worsened rapidly from the end of the 1980s to the mid-2000s. • Control measures have curbed the worsening trend in the last decade. • Coastal eutrophication should slightly decrease in the China Seas in the near future. - Abstract: China's rapid economic and social development has led to an acceleration in nutrient inputs to coastal waters, which, in turn, has resulted in severe coastal eutrophication. On the occasion of the 40th anniversary of China's reform and opening up, the evolution of the causative factors and the state as well as future prospects for coastal eutrophication in the China Seas are analyzed and summarized. Results showed that the coastal eutrophication situation was not so serious at the beginning of reform and opening up, but it worsened rapidly from the end of the 1980s to the mid-2000s. In the last decade, the worsening trend has been curbed but the status of coastal eutrophication has not been substantially improved. Much work is still needed to be able control the total amount of nutrients entering coastal waters and enable comprehensive treatment of coastal eutrophication in the China Seas.
[en] Three jellyfish species, Aurelia aurita, Cyanea nozakii and Nemopilema nomurai, form large blooms in Chinese seas. We report on the distribution and increasing incidence of jellyfish blooms and their consequences in Chinese coastal seas and analyze their relationship to anthropogenically derived changes to the environment in order to determine the possible causes. A. aurita, C. nozakii and N. nomurai form blooms in the temperate Chinese seas including the northern East China Sea, Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. N. nomurai forms offshore blooms while the other two species bloom mainly in inshore areas. Eutrophication, overfishing, habitat modification for aquaculture and climate change are all possible contributory factors facilitating plausible mechanisms for the proliferation of jellyfish blooms. In the absence of improvement in coastal marine ecosystem health, jellyfish blooms could be sustained and may even spread from the locations in which they now occur.
[en] Various migration methods have been proposed to image high-angle geological structures and media with strong lateral velocity variations; however, the problems of low precision and high computational cost remain unresolved. To describe the seismic wave propagation in media with lateral velocity variations and to image high-angle structures, we propose the generalized screen propagator based on particle swarm optimization (PSO-GSP), for the precise fitting of the single-square-root operator. We use the 2D SEG/EAGE salt model to test the proposed PSO-GSP migration method to image the faults beneath the salt dome and compare the results to those of the conventional high-order generalized screen propagator (GSP) migration and split-step Fourier (SSF) migration. Moreover, we use 2D marine data from the South China Sea to show that the PSO-GSP migration can better image strong reflectors than conventional imaging methods.
[en] On March 24, 1989, the supertanker Exxon Valdez struck a sub- merged rock pinnacle at Bligh Reef, puncturing eight of its storage tanks. Within hours, 11 million gallons of crude oil were dumped into the waters of Prince William Sound. The cleanup, damage assessment, and restoration activities undertaken for this environmentally complex area presented multifaceted challenges to public and private organizations and various professional disciplines. One of these challenges was obtaining and disseminating prespill, spill, and postspill information for both the private and public sector. The Oil Spill Public Information Center (OSPIC) was created for this purpose by the US Department of Justice on behalf of the federal trustees. Its management has since been assumed by the restoration team, an arm of the state-federal Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. On October 8, 1991, a settlement agreement was approved in United States District Court, which required Exxon to pay $1 billion in criminal restitution and civil damages to the United States and the state of Alaska. The settlement terms specify that the Trustee Council shall establish procedures providing for meaningful public participation in the injury assessment and restoration process. Consistent with that mandate, the OSPIC is responsible for providing a repository for all material related to the Exxon Valdez oil spill, The OSPIC is a specialized library open to the public. Its function is to collect, organize, and make accessible materials generated by state and federal agencies and the private sector as a result of the cleanup, damage assessment, and restoration activities of the spill. The OSPIC staff is also identifying and collecting baseline studies in the Prince William Sound and Gulf of Alaska areas, as well as materials on cold water marine spills. The OSPIC serves a variety of patrons, including industry, the oil spill response community, state and federal agencies, scientists, etc
[en] As part of an environmental impact assessment, an oil-spill risk analysis was run for the Cook Inlet/Shelikof Strait area. A stochastic assessment was made of the risk from spills occurring and contacting coastal resources from potential offshore oil production and transportation activities. The results of the analysis are useful in contingency plans for identifying areas of the coast most at risk on a seasonal basis. Multiple trajectory simulations were made from over 700 oil-spill launch sites spread throughout the study area. The spill trajectories were driven by a density-forced ocean circulation model, atmospheric model winds, and modeled tidal currents. Spill contacts were recorded for 30 environmental resources located along the coastline and in surrounding waters. The results are expressed in graphic form using risk contour plots. Each plot shows the estimated risk to a given resource from the simulated spill sites. Results are characterized by time of spill contact and season. 14 refs., 8 figs
[en] With sea levels projected to rise as a result of climate change, it is imperative to understand not only long-term average trends, but also the spatial and temporal patterns of extreme sea level. In this study, we use a comprehensive set of 30 tide gauges spanning 1954–2014 to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of extreme sea level around the low-lying and densely populated margins of the South China Sea. We also explore the long-term evolution of extreme sea level by applying a dynamic linear model for the generalized extreme value distribution (DLM-GEV), which can be used for assessing the changes in extreme sea levels with time. Our results show that the sea-level maxima distributions range from ~ 90 to 400 cm and occur seasonally across the South China Sea. In general, the sea-level maxima at northern tide gauges are approximately 25–30% higher than those in the south and are highest in summer as tropical cyclone-induced surges dominate the northern signal. In contrast, the smaller signal in the south is dominated by monsoonal winds in the winter. The trends of extreme high percentiles of sea-level values are broadly consistent with the changes in mean sea level. The DLM-GEV model characterizes the interannual variability of extreme sea level, and hence, the 50-year return levels at most tide gauges. We find small but statistically significant correlations between extreme sea level and both the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Our study provides new insight into the dynamic relationships between extreme sea level, mean sea level and the tidal cycle in the South China Sea, which can contribute to preparing for coastal risks at multi-decadal timescales.
[en] The climatic characteristics of 260 East Asian tropical monsoon depressions (EAMDs) are investigated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and a tracking dataset of global monsoon low-pressure systems. Most EAMDs form over the South China Sea (SCS) and the western tropical Pacific Ocean in July–October and have an average lifetime of 10 days. The vertical structures of EAMDs are usually upright or tilt slightly westward with height. The warm-over-cold thermal structure is a distinctive characteristic of EAMDs and two potential vorticity (PV) centers are related to the warm core in the upper level and the specific humidity center in the lower level, respectively. We divided the EAMDs into four groups: eastward-moving, westward-moving, turning, and northwestward-moving EAMDs. Most of the eastward-moving EAMDs form over the SCS in May and June, whereas the westward-moving EAMDs form over both the SCS and the western Pacific Ocean in July–October. The turning and northwestward-moving EAMDs are mainly generated over the western Pacific Ocean and have longer lifetimes. The structures of the eastward-moving and turning EAMDs show common characteristics in each stage. Their vertical structures change from upright in the developing and peak stages to northeast tilting with height in the attenuating stage, especially for the specific humidity. By contrast, the structures of westward- and northwestward-moving EAMDs show little change during their lifetime. They are symmetrical relative to the vertical axis of the EAMDs over their whole lifetime and only vary in strength.
[en] A study regarding marine species for toxicity testing for Alaska conditions was presented and the potential adverse impacts of a large marine oil spill in cold water were discussed with the objective to determine if the spill should be treated by the use of oil dispersants. Without dispersion, the oil can pollute marine epifauna and can deposit on beaches. The decision to apply dispersants to a marine oil spill requires knowledge of the toxicity of the undispersed oil to pelagic marine life occurring via natural dispersion as opposed to the toxicity of the oil-dispersant mixture. Most standard toxicity tests apply to warm water species. This paper discussed the need to have a standard test species relevant to Alaska waters for toxicity testing. In this study, toxicity testing was done according to the methods of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills : Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). The testing included capturing adult species in the winter and holding them until larval hatching. Toxicity testing was completed in a narrow time frame before hatching ceased. Many chemical samples were tested. Topsmelt, urchins, shellfish, mysids, copepods, pink salmon fry, and tidepool sculpin were considered by the author to be the most useful for certain types of toxicity testing. 29 refs
[en] The service territory for Puget Sound Energy (PSE) was presented in terms of electric power and gas transmission. Issues affecting the Puget Sound area include high growth and the west coast energy crisis which has had an adverse financial impact on the power industry. The transmission system is basically at capacity and has been impacted by imports and exports between the United States and Canada. Other issues include the separation between energy resources and transmission, modernizing the power grid, and challenges for independent power producers (IPPs). The Northwest Transmission Assessment Committee (NTAC), which was formed under the Northwest Power Pool, has the potential to bring interested parties to study constrained paths and to plan a single utility concept for the region. It is expected that new challenges such as financing and risk management will emerge once the technical solutions are identified and agreed upon. The issue of enforceable and mandatory reliability standards was also discussed. 1 fig