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[en] Trichinellosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease produced mainly by the consumption of poorly cooked swine meat. Several studies have probed the efficiency of immunotherapy as a method for the treatment of trichinellosis. In this work, a 45 kDa immunodominant antigen was characterized, and the presence of IgA, IgM and IgG antti-Trichinella spiralis antibodies was evaluated during the course of the infection. In addition, the differences between sublingual and parenteral administration of the 45 kDa T. spiralis antigen were determined. Long Evans rats were used both to purify the 45 kDa antigen and to evaluate the immune response produced in six different groups: healthy and infected controls; two groups of immunized murines (sublingually and parenterally) with four doses of the 45 kDa T. spiralis immunogen administered at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 and challenged with 500 T. spiralis infective larvae (IL) 7 days after the last immunization; and finally, two groups of murines infected with 500 IL of T. spiralis, immunized at week 4 post infection by the same two routes. The humoral response was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence by confocal microscopy in order to determine the presence of IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies.
[en] A bioassay guided fractionation of Ganiothalamus scortechinii yielded compounds with promising anti-malarial activity. When subjected to the lactate dehydrogenase calanone, goniothalamine, goniothalenol and pinocembrine, the showed an improved schizonticidal activity with the chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum, compared to the crude extract of G. scortechinii; whilst only goniothalamine and goniothalanol were active with the resistant strain (Gombak A). The cytotoxicity of each compound were then assessed with the MTT test using MDBK cells. Out of the four compounds only calanone exhibited a safe therapeutic margin, whilst the others are found to be toxic against the cells used. In the attempt to characterise its anti-malarial activity the beta haematin (BH) inhibitory activity of the compounds were determined using the Haematin Polymerisation Inhibitory Assay (HPIA) and the Beta Haematin Inhibitory Assay (BHIA). For each, a better inhibition was observed in the HPIA. However from the low inhibitory values obtained it can be concluded that the inhibition of BH formation is not how the compounds exert their antimalarial activity. (Author)
[en] Four female cotton leaf curl virus-resistant resistant (cclv) parents consisting of advance strains and commercial varieties (VH-137, FH-901, CRIS-467 and Cyto-51) and four male parents, all clcv resistant Punjab varieties (FH-945, CIM-707, CIM-473 and FH-1000) were mated in a cross classification Design-II fashion. The results show that genetic variances due to additive genes were higher than the dominant variances, yet both types of variances were substantial, implying that significant improvement could reliably be made from segregating populations. The general combining ability (gca) estimates by and large suggested that for improvement in the appearance of first white flower and 1st sympodial branch node number, parents FH-945 and VH-137 whereas for 1st effective boll setting, parents FH-1000 and FH-901 and for percent of open bolls at 120 days after planting, parents CIM-707 and CRIS-467 may be given preference. However, for hybrid cotton development regarding earliness, hybrids CRIS-467 x CIM-707, VH-137 x FH-945 and Cyto-51 x FH-1000 may be chosen. (author)
[en] In vitro studies on the pathogenesis of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are conducted regularly using laboratory adapted strains that lose some characteristics during the adaptation process. Since HCMV is excreted from bodily fluids during infection or reactivation, this work aimed to isolate and culture HCMV from the MRC-5 human cells found in the urine, bronchoalveolar lavage, saliva, and plasma samples of pediatric patients with probable or confirmed infection. The samples were inoculated on cell cultures either for 14 days or until a cytopathic effect (CPE) of 80 % was observed. The cell lysates and supernatants were used to perform successive viral passages. Besides HCMV, the herpes simplex virus was detected from all the saliva samples. Inoculation of the HCMV positive sera induced cell clustering and immediate monolayer damage that restricted their use. One sample of bronchoalveolar lavage induced a CPE after inoculation like that of the HCMV reference strains (Towne and Merlin), which was consequently propagated and titrated. A second viral isolate derived from the urine sample of a patient with congenital infection did not demonstrate a CPE, although presence of the virus had been confirmed using PCR. The viral isolates were examined and found to be negative for adenoviruses or enteroviruses. Despite the evident difficulty encountered for the isolation and harvesting of the HCMV, this work shows that it was possible to obtain a low passage viral strain using a modified shell vial method and inoculation protocol with extended follow-up and confirmation.
[en] Virus-host interactions essential for alphavirus pathogenesis are poorly understood. To address this shortcoming, we coupled retrovirus insertional mutagenesis and a cell survival selection strategy to generate clonal cell lines broadly resistant to Sindbis virus (SINV) and other alphaviruses. Resistant cells had significantly impaired SINV production relative to wild-type (WT) cells, although virus binding and fusion events were similar in both sets of cells. Analysis of the retroviral integration sites identified the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene as disrupted in alphavirus-resistant cell lines. Subsequent analysis indicated that expression of NF1 was significantly reduced in alphavirus-resistant cells. Importantly, independent down-regulation of NF1 expression in WT HEK 293 cells decreased virus production and increased cell viability during SINV infection, relative to infected WT cells. Additionally, we observed hyperactive RAS signalling in the resistant HEK 293 cells, which was anticipated because NF1 is a negative regulator of RAS. Expression of constitutively active RAS (HRAS-G12V) in a WT HEK 293 cell line resulted in a marked delay in virus production, compared with infected cells transfected with parental plasmid or dominant-negative RAS (HRAS-S17N). This work highlights novel host cell determinants required for alphavirus pathogenesis and suggests that RAS signalling may play an important role in neuronal susceptibility to SINV infection
[en] The aims of this study were to generate chimeric human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) in order to identify immunogenic domains and conformational neutralizing epitopes, and to characterize the regions where a foreign epitope could be introduced. We hypothesized that these regions could be on L1 protein loops since they are exposed on the surface of VLPs. The aims of this study were achieved by mutating HPV-16 L1 proteins. Six amino acids encoding for the epitope 78-83 (DPASRE) of the hepatitis B core (HBc) antigen were introduced within the different loops of the L1 protein at positions 56/57, 140/141, 179/180, 266/267, 283/284 or 352/353. All these chimeric L1 proteins were capable of self-assembly into VLPs. The antigenicity and immunogenicity of some of these VLPs were reduced compared to the levels observed with wild-type VLPs. All were nevertheless able to induce neutralizing antibodies. VLPs with insertion at position 266/267 induced lower levels of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting the involvement of residues situated on FG loop in L1 neutralizing epitopes. All the chimeric L1 proteins except the one with insertion at position 56/57 were also able to induce anti-HBc antibodies, thus suggesting exposure of the HBc epitope on the VLP surface. Taken together, our findings indicate the possibility of designing HPV-derived vectors that are less immunogenic and suggest positions for insertion of defined immune epitopes or cell ligands into L1 protein to be exposed on the surface of VLPs