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[en] This report quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the industrial sector and identifies opportunities for non-GHG-emitting thermal energy sources to replace the most significant GHG-emitting U.S. industries based on targeted, process-level analysis of industrial heat requirements. The intent is to provide a basis for projecting opportunities for clean energy use. This provides a prospectus for small modular nuclear reactors (including nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems), solar industrial process heat, and geothermal energy. This report provides a complement to analysis of process-efficiency improvement by considering how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions.
[en] The THERMOS process heat reactor was born from the following idea: the hot water energy vector is widely used for heating purposes in cities, so why not save on traditional fossil fuels by simply substituting a nuclear boiler of comparable power for the classical boiler installed in the same place. The French Atomic Energy Commission has techniques for heating in the big French cities which provide better guarantees for national independence and for the environment. This THERMOS technique would result in a saving of 40,000 to 80,000 tons of oil per year
[fr]Le reacteur nucleaire de chauffage THERMOS est ne de l'idee suivante: le vecteur energetique eau chaude etant couramment utilise pour le chauffage de villes ou de grands ensembles, pourquoi, pour economiser des combustibles fossiles traditionnels, ne pas tout simplement substituer a a la chaudiere classique une chaudiere nucleaire de puissance comparable, installee au meme endroit. Le CEA dispose d'une technique permettant de chauffer les grandes agglomeratons francaises dans des conditions d'independance nationale et d'environnement satisfaisantes. Cette technique permettrait d'economiser 40.000 a 80.000 tonnes de petrole par an
[en] The effect of wind speed V on the daily productivity Pd of some active and passive solar stills is studied by computer simulation. Numerical calculations have been carried out on typical summer and winter days in Tanta in order to correlate Pd with V for different masses of basin water mw for the passive stills and various thicknesses dw or mass flow rates mw of the flowing brine for the active stills. It is found that for the active and multi-effect passive stills, Pd increases with the increase of V up to a typical velocity Vt beyond which the increase in Pd becomes insignificant. However, for all the investigated single effect passive stills, there is a critical mass (depth) of basin water beyond which Pd increases as V increases until Vt. For basin water masses less than the critical mass, Pd is found to decrease with increasing V until Vt. After Vt, the change in Pd is unimportant in a similar behavior to that obtained for the active and multi-effect passive stills. The critical mass (depth) of basin water for the investigated single effect passive stills is found to be 45 kg (4.5 cm). Moreover, the typical velocity Vt is independent on the still shape and the mode of operation (active or passive) but it shows some seasonal dependence. For the investigated stills, Vt is found to be 10 and 8 m/s on typical summer and winter days, respectively. Comparisons with the results reported in the previous studies about the effect of wind speed on productivity have been carried out