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[en] The role of organic, in particular, complex-forming, reagents in the formation and development of spectrophotometric analysis is discussed. The prospects for the use of organic reagents in modern analytical methods are considered; the attention is focused on modified and immobilised reagents, receptor molecules and on the use of nonaqueous and organised media.
[en] The use of molecular replacement in solving the structures of G protein-coupled receptors is discussed, with specific examples being described in detail. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large class of integral membrane proteins involved in regulating virtually every aspect of human physiology. Despite their profound importance in human health and disease, structural information regarding GPCRs has been extremely limited until recently. With the advent of a variety of new biochemical and crystallographic techniques, the structural biology of GPCRs has advanced rapidly, offering key molecular insights into GPCR activation and signal transduction. To date, almost all GPCR structures have been solved using molecular-replacement techniques. Here, the unique aspects of molecular replacement as applied to individual GPCRs and to signaling complexes of these important proteins are discussed
[en] CYP1A1 isoform is mainly regulated by the transcription factor AhR and to a lesser extent by the nuclear receptor RAR. The effect of a coexposure with 3MC, a AhR ligand, and RA, a RAR ligand, which are, respectively, strong and weak CYP1A1 inducers, is poorly known. We showed in Caco-2 cells that addition of RA significantly decreased 3MC-induced CYP1A1 expression by -55% for mRNA level and -30% for promoter and enzymatic activities. We further showed that RA decreased AhR protein level. Moreover, a physical interaction between AhR and the RAR-corepressor SMRT has been described in vitro. Using the corepressor inhibitor TSA, transfected-cells with SMRT cDNA, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments, we demonstrated that RA addition repressed AhR function through a marked AhR/SMRT physical interaction. This interaction explains the decrease of 3MC-induced CYP1A1 expression. This new mechanism involving the repression of AhR-induced CYP1A1 expression by retinoids allows better knowledge of the CYP1A1 regulation
[en] DAX-1 is an atypical nuclear receptor (NR) which functions primarily as a transcriptional corepressor of other NRs via heterodimerization. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ is a ligand-dependent NR which performs a key function in adipogenesis. In this study, we evaluated a novel cross-talk mechanism between DAX-1 and PPARγ. Transient transfection assays demonstrated that DAX-1 inhibits the transactivity of PPARγ in a dose-dependent manner. DAX-1 directly competed with the PPARγ coactivator (PGC)-1α for binding to PPARγ. Endogenous levels of DAX-1 were significantly lower in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes as compared to preadipocytes. Using a retroviral expression system, we demonstrated that DAX-1 overexpression downregulates the expression of PPARγ target genes, resulting in an attenuation of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that DAX-1 acts as a corepressor of PPARγ and performs a potential function in the regulation of PPARγ-mediated cellular differentiation
[en] Neuromedin B (NMB), a mammalian bombesin-like peptide, regulates diverse physiological processes, such as energy metabolism, memory and fear behavior, and cellular growth, through its cognate receptor, NMBR. In this study, we report that NMB expression was upregulated during osteoclast development and that silencing NMB or NMBR attenuated osteoclast generation mediated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). We found that knockdown of NMB or NMBR using a small hairpin RNA suppressed M-CSF-induced proliferation of osteoclast precursor cells without altering osteoclast differentiation. Interestingly, NMB or NMBR knockdown reduced the expression of the M-CSF receptor, c-Fms, which is an important modulator of osteoclast development. Consequently, NMB or NMBR silencing inhibited M-CSF/c-Fms-mediated downstream signaling pathways like activation of ERK and Akt and induction of D-type cyclins, cyclin D1 and D2. Moreover, knockdown of NMB or NMBR accelerated apoptosis in osteoclast lineage cells by inducing caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bim expression. In summary, our study demonstrates that the NMB/NMBR axis plays a pivotal role in osteoclast generation by modulating the proliferation and survival of osteoclast lineage cells. - Highlights: • NMB and NMBR expression is regulated during osteoclast development. • NMB/NMBR axis regulates osteoclast generation mediated by M-CSF and RANKL. • NMB/NMBR silencing suppresses M-CSF-induced osteoclast precursor proliferation. • NMB/NMBR silencing accelerates apoptosis in osteoclast lineage cells.
[en] The goal of this report was to propose a model, wherein synergy between the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) and toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is involved in the selection of the B-cell precursors of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) with long heavy chain complementarity determining regions 3, from immature/ transitional B cells. The model predicts the involvement of Ab/HIV-1 complexes in a way that Ab from the complex binds both BCRs and HIV-1, while on internalization of HIV-1 TLR ligands such as CpG motifs interacts with TLR9. The result of BCR and TLR9 orchestrated signaling is a formation of somatically mutated memory B cells potential precursors of bnAbs. Generated memory B cells continuously exposed to different Ab/HIV-1 complexes can elicit specific bnAb by stochastic somatic hypermutation rather than in the Darwinian process. This new view of the interaction between Ab/HIV-1 complexes and immune system, leading to affinity maturation of the bnAbs in the absence of nominal HIV-1 antigen and BCR interaction, may have implication for the vaccine designed and passive immunization. © 2019, Publicaciones Permanyer. All rights reserved.