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[en] This paper deals with the bora wind effect on the Adriatic Sea circulation as simulated by a 3-D numerical code (the DieCAST model). The main result of this forcing is the formation of intense upwelling along the eastern coast in agreement with previous theoretical studies and observations. Different numerical experiments are discussed for various boundary and initial conditions to evaluate their influence on both circulation and upwelling patterns
[en] Highlights: • The impact of small-scale beach nourishment on macrofaunal recruitment was assessed. • Temporal changes of sedimentation rates differ in impact than in control sites. • Beach nourishment determines limited impacts on local benthic assemblages. • Small-scale beach nourishment is an ecosustainable tool to contrast coastal erosion. - Abstract: Beach nourishment is a widely utilized solution to counteract the erosion of shorelines, and there is an active discussion on its possible consequences on coastal marine assemblages. We investigated the impact caused by a small-scale beach nourishment carried out in the Western Adriatic Sea on macrofaunal recruitment and post-settlement events. Artificial substrates were deployed in proximity of nourished and non-manipulated beaches and turbidity and sedimentation rates were measured. Our results indicate that sedimentation rates in the impacted site showed a different temporal change compared to the control sites, suggesting potential modifications due to the beach nourishment. The impact site was characterized by subtle changes in terms of polychaete abundance and community structure when compared to controls, possibly due to beach nourishment, although the role of other factors cannot be ruled out. We conclude that small-scale beach nourishments appear to be an eco-sustainable approach to contrast coastal erosion.
[en] Surface heat fluxes of the Adriatic Sea are estimated for the period 1998-2001 through bulk formulae with the goal to assess the uncertainties related to their estimations and to describe their interannual variability. In addition a comparison to observations is conducted. We computed the components of the sea surface heat budget by using two different operational meteorological data sets as inputs: the ECMWF operational analysis and the regional limited area model LAMBO operational forecast. Both results are consistent with previous long-term climatology and short-term analyses present in the literature. In both cases we obtained that the Adriatic Sea loses 26 W/m2 on average, that is consistent with the assessments found in the literature. Then we conducted a comparison with observations of the radiative components of the heat budget collected on offshore platforms and one coastal station. In the case of shortwave radiation, results show a little overestimation on the annual basis. Values obtained in this case are 172 W/m2 when using ECMWF data and 169 W/m2 when using LAMBO data. The use of either Schiano's or Gilman's and Garrett's corrections help to get even closer values. More difficult is to assess the comparison in the case of longwave radiation, with relative errors of an order of 10-20%
[en] A case history of the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co.'s (Gupco) first subsea completion is provided. The first completion was for Well GS 373-2, a previously drilled and tested exploration well located in the south portion of the gulf of Suez. Subsea technology was used to economically justify development of this one-well marginal field, which was discovered in 1978. Traditional methods proved to be too costly for development, therefore application of a low-cost subsea tree was used to capture the resources. In the Gulf of Suez, many fields have been discovered but have not been developed because of low reserves. These marginal projects can have a profound impact on the revenue and shareholder value if an economic method is used to exploit these opportunities. Platform installation was not feasible because of reserve size, hence the well has remained abandoned until recently. This paper presents a summarized look at subsea completion technology. The cost comparison of traditional development methods will be made, given the local cost structure in Egypt. The application of this technology has some limitations and constraints that will be discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the actual field installation of Egypt's first subsea tree will be summarized. Also included is a discussion on simple remote controls and offshore installation operations
[en] In order to determine the particulate fluxes and to characterise the suspended load of an area influenced by terrestrial inputs and interested by active sedimentation processes, suspended and sedimented matter samples were collected 2,3 miles SE from the Adige estuary, on the isobath of 20 m. The sediments of the area are characterised by clayey silts extending from NW to SE parallel to the coastal line. From April 1995 to July 1996 samples of suspended and sedimented matter were collected, every 4 to 7 days, by a programmable sediment trap of 0,05 m2 moored at 2 m above the bottom in a site influenced primarily by the Brenta and Adige rivers. The collections bottles were filled with 4% formaldehyde solution of in situ collected marine water, buffered at pH 8,2 with Na2B4O7 and filtered on 0,4 Nucleopore filter
[en] A workshop was convened under the sponsorship of the Energy Research and Development Administration to define the most critical energy-related environmental problems in the Gulf of Mexico and develop the framework for a program of research to solve these problems. A major and immediate concern is activity related to the oil and gas industry: production, transportation (including potential superport construction), processing, and use of petroleum-derived fuels. The problems which might be posed by the development of other potential sources of energy, such as coastal and offshore nuclear power plants, were also given consideration. Several keynote speakers presented their thoughts on Gulf environmental problems from different points of view, and their remarks are recorded in Appendix I
[en] The ways we used to generate and utilize energy have been threatening our living environment. For example, the crude oil spills in Gulf of Mexico in 2010 left devastating effects to the Gulf ecosystem, Fukushima nuclear plant leaks in Japan in 2012 threatened the lives of thousands of people, and the Haze in the cities of China at present affects the health of millions of people. All of them remind us of the global energy and environment crisis that we have to face in the near future. Alternative solutions in energy generation and utilization have to be explored towards a sustainable earth.
[en] Highlights: • Implementing integrative risk management in practice is a major challenge. • Enhanced multi-sectoral structures and improved social and flexible processes are needed. • The presented framework stresses consideration of historical framing, risk perceptions and risk awareness. • Benefits of multi-stakeholder collaboration for integrative risk management policy-making are marked. - Abstract: Scientific literature calls for a shift from exclusively technical towards enhanced social processes in risk management to cope with the challenges of increased complex governance regimes wherein different interests of contrasting institutions need to be considered, balanced and negotiated. However, practical implementation of this integrative perspective is still a major challenge – underlined amongst others by the recently published Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. By proposing an Integrated Risk Management Approach (IRMA) we contribute to simplified conditions in the transfer from scientific debates into practical implementation. Looking in particular on coastal regions, IRMA focus the user’s view on the essential challenges in terms of enhanced multi-sectoral structures and improved social and flexible processes, as much as it gives advice on its methodical realization. Using our practical experiences in the trilateral Wadden Sea Region, we disclose IRMA’s contribution on enhanced consideration of historical framing, risk perceptions, risk awareness and enhanced multi-stakeholder participation. Multi-stakeholder participation, institutionalised in multi-stakeholder partnerships, makes an essential contribution towards enhanced collaborative processes between scientists, policy-makers and affected communities.