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[en] The structural elements in a rock are characterized by their density in Preisach-Mayergoyz space (PM space). This density is found for a Berea sandstone from stress-strain data and used to study the response of the sandstone to elaborate pressure protocols. Hysteresis with discrete memory, in agreement with experiment, is found. The relationship between strain, quasistatic modulus, and dynamic modulus is established. Nonlinear wave propagation, the production of copious harmonics, and nonlinear attenuation are demonstrated. PM space is shown to be the central construct in a new paradigm for the description of the elastic behavior of consolidated materials
[en] The development of a discharge in a point−plane gap filled with a saline solution with a salt content of 3% was studied experimentally. The duration of the voltage pulse applied to the gap was about 2 ms. Data are presented on the formation dynamics of gas microcavities at near-threshold voltages at which gas-discharge plasma appears in some microcavities. The cavities are conglomerates of microbubbles with a typical size of ≈100 μm. At the threshold voltage (≈750 V), the active electrode is covered with a gas layer and the gap voltage is in fact applied to this layer, which leads to the development of discharges in individual microbubbles. In this case, the discharge operates in the form of short current pulses. The number of microcavities filled with plasma increases as the voltage grows above the threshold value. At the plasma boundary, new microbubbles are formed, in which discharges are ignited. As a result, the plasma front propagates from the active electrode into the gap with a characteristic velocity of 103 cm/s.
[en] Project II of the Uranium Geology Working Group was assigned to the study of sedimentary basins and sandstone - type uranium deposits. About 40% of the worlds's uranium resources are contained in sandstone-type deposits, which has led to extensive research. The research was carried out mainly by correspondence, and the results reported by 21 geologists from 10 nations are summarized in this report. It investigated five topics dealing with important aspects of the geology of uranium ores in sandstone host formations: age of host rock; partitioning of uranium between continental and marine sediments; latitude limitation on formation of sandstone deposits; effect of rock formation dip on sandstone ores; usefulness of stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies. The results of studies on these subjects form part of a wider programme of the Working Group, whose final results will be presented at the 27th International Geological Congress in Moscow in 1984
[en] Linear and nonlinear elastic wave pulse propagation experiments were performed in sandstone rods, both at ambient conditions and in vacuum. The purpose of these experiments was to obtain a quantitative measure of the extremely large nonlinear response found in microcracked (i.e., micro-inhomogeneous) media like rock. Two rods were used, (1) a 2-m-long, 5-cm-diam rod of Berea sandstone (with embedded detectors) used in previously published experiments and (2) a somewhat smaller 1.8-m-long, 3.8-cm-diam rod. In the earlier experiments, wave scattering from the embedded detectors was a critical problem. In most of the experiments reported here, this problem was avoided by mounting accelerometers directly to the outside surface of the rod. Linear results show out of vacuum attenuations varied from 1.7 Np/m at 15 kHz (Q=10) for the large rod to 0.4 Np/m at 15 kHz (Q=55) for the small rod; attenuations for the small rod in vacuum were much less, typically about 0.15 Np/m at 15 kHz (Q=150). Wave velocities ranged from 1900 to 2600 m/s. The nonlinear results illustrate growth of the second and third harmonics and accompanying decay of the fundamental. These nonlinear results compare well with a numerical model. Although the results here were performed at peak strain amplitudes as low as 5x10-7, they still show the pronounced nonlinearity characteristic of rock, in agreement with static and resonance studies using the same rock type
[en] When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the 'trans-Hill stage'—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ('big bodies') become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in the trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ∼10α << 1, where α ∼ 0.005(a/AU)–1 is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>α–1 × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies. This mode of growth may explain the observed size distributions of small bodies in the solar system and is explored in our subsequent work. Second, if the big bodies' orbits become separated by their Hill radius, oligarchy commences. This mode likely precedes the formation of fully fledged planets.
[en] The fundamental issue of reconstructing a porous medium is examined anew in this paper, thanks to a sample of low-porosity Fontainebleau sandstone that has been analyzed by computed microtomography. Various geometric properties are determined on the experimental sample. A statistical property, namely, the probability density of the covering radius, is determined. This is used in order to reconstruct a porous medium by means of a Poissonian generation of polydisperse spheres. In a second part, the properties of the real experimental sample and of the reconstructed one are compared. The most important success of the present reconstruction technique is the fact that the numerical sample percolates despite its low porosity. Moreover, other geometrical features and conductivity are found to be in good agreement