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[en] The purpose of the present study was to investigate associations between periapical and bitewing techniques by assessing the crestal alveolar bone. This article also reports the ability of these two techniques to correctly detect evidence of interproximal dental caries, and comparison between the interproximal overlapping of teeth. Bitewing and periapical radiographs were used from posterior quadrants of 243 dental students in Seoul National University. The distance from cemento-enamel junction to the alveolar crest (CEJ-AC) was measured for each proximal surface from the distal of cuspid to the distal of second molar. Data were arranged according to the proximal surface examined, and bitewing and periapical measurements were compared using paired tests. The obtained results were as follows: 1. In maxilla, a significant ratio with a P value of 0.05 or les reached for 100% and in mandible, reached for 94%. 2. The anatomic limitations imposed on periapical radiographic technique, most often result in somewhat foreshortened radiographic images. This situation would tend to be accentuated by the anatomical restrictions of the hard palate. 3. Consequently, since the significant differences frequently exist between measurements obtained from bitewing and periapical techniques, it is importance to define which technique is used. 4. The number of the interproximal overlapping was the largest media side of the maxillary second molar, while the smallest at the distal side of the mandibular second premolar. And the overall number of the interproximal overlapping was more (538) in the periapical technique than in the bitewing technique (372). 5. The interproximal dental carious lesions were detected more (74) on the bitewing films than on the periapical ones (23). The fact was resulted from the small number of interproximal overlapping and relative easiness of obtaining horizontal angulation in taking the bitewing radiographs.
[en] Three cases of florid osseous dysplasia of the jaw were investigated. Radiographs showed sclerotic, globular and ground glass opacities throughout the jaws. Two cases were asymptomatic but one case failed to heal following extraction of the mandibular molar and infection complicated the disease. These cases appear to represent the most exuberant manifestations of this reactive benign fibro-osseous lesion of the jaws.
[en] This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.
[en] Several panoramic indices have been suggested to assess bone quality from the morphology and width of mandibular cortex on panoramic radiography. The purpose of this study was to compare dental implant failure group with control group in panoramic mandibular index (PMI), mandibular cortical index (MCI), and gonion index (GI) and to determine the effect of these panoramic indices on dental implant failure. A case-control study was designed. Test group (n = 42) consisted of the patients who had their implants extracted because of peri-implantitis. Control group (n = 139) consisted of the patients who retained their implants over one year without any pathologic changes and had been followed up periodically. They had dental implants installed in their mandibles without bone augmentation surgery from 1991 to 2001. The following measures were collected for each patients: 1) PMI, MCI, and GI were measured twice at one-week interval on preoperative panoramic views; and 2) age, sex, implant length, implant type, installed location, occluding dentition state, and complication were investigated from the chart record. The PMI showed moderate level of repeatability. The intra-observer agreement of MCI and GI were good. There was statistically significant difference in PMI between two groups. There were significant different patterns of distribution of MCI and GI between two groups. Among the panoramic indices, PMI and MCI showed significant correlation with dental implant failure. Panoramic indices can be used as reference data in estimating bone quality of edentulous patients who are to have implants installed in their mandibles.
[en] The purpose of this study was to compare the interpretation results of the panoramic radiographs with those of intraoral radiographs in evaluation of alveolar bone loss. All radiographs were obtained from 100 patients who had visited the Dental Infirmary of Kyunpook National University Hospital for periodontal state evaluation. The results were as follows: The percentages of interpretable sites were 95.9% (94.6% in maxilla, 97.4% in mandible) on the intraoral radiographs, and 90.7% (84.0% in maxilla, 97.3% in mandible) on panoramic radiographs. The concordance of interpretation scores of marginal bone loss between intraoral and panoramic radiographs was 66.3% (65.6% in maxilla, 66.8% in mandible). And according to the site, the highest concordance was in distal surface of the mandibular 2nd premolar ant 82.0%, and the distal surface of the mandibular 1st premolar (76.8%), the distal surface of the maxillary central incisor (75.8%), the mesial surface of the 2nd premolar (75.0%) in descending order of frequency. According to the interpretation scores of the marginal bone loss, the percentages of concordance between intraoral and panoramic radiographs were the highest on the score 10 at 76.4%, and the lowest on the score 8, 9. And the percentages of concordance were inverse proportional rate from the score 5 to the score 9. Number of the observed sites of the function involvement in bitewing and panoramic radiographs were 268 sites, and the percentage of interpretable sites was 92.9% in bitewing radiographs and 86.6% in panoramic radiographs. And the concordance rate of interpretation was 79.5%.
[en] A number of panoramic radiographic images of the condylar head at various horizontal angulations were compared. A small artificial osteophyte was attached to the eight different portions of the condylar head and a small hole was created in four different portions of the condylar head. Three oral and maxillofacial radiologists evaluated the panoramic condylar images. The following results were obtained; 1. Osteophyte in the superomedial, anterocentral and anterolateral portions could be detected easily, but those in the lateral, superolateral and medial portions were very hard to identify. 2. The greater the condylar horizontal angle, the easier it was to detect an osteophyte. But there was no statistically significant difference except between 0 and 40 degrees of horizontal angulation. 3. Holes in the anterocentral and superocentral portions could be detected easily, but those in the lateral and medial portions were very hard to identify. There were no differences between the various condylar horizontal angles.
[en] The purpose of this study is to know the value of the photographic subtraction technic in the transcranial oblique lateral projection of the TMJ. The author examined the transcranial oblique lateral projection radiographs which comprise 50 cases of 32 persons, compared the transcranial oblique lateral projection films and those subtraction films. The following results were obtained: 1) The condyle at closed jaw position had showed a reversed tone image, but the condyle at the opening position had showed a re-reversed ordinary image. Both condyles had showed one subtraction film because radiographic interpretation of TMJ was easy. 2) On 20 cases of subtraction films, 46 cases showed same radiographic images compared with transcranial oblique lateral projection films. Four cases (3 cases of erosion, 1 cases of sclerosis) had showed additional changes of images so that capability of interpretation was improved.
[en] In anteroposterior projection for cervical vertebra, it is general that the incidence angle of X-ray is 15 degrees to 20 degrees to head in order to prevent overlap of mandible and occipital bone and to observe array of cervical interbody and shapes of joints. However, the angle is appropriate for foreigners that was determined by foreign literature review long ago, and there have been few researches of incidence angle for Koreans' body type. The purpose of in this study are to identify the incidence angle appropriate for Koreans and to present methodology. In order to measure the incidence angle, 1,044 patients who visited S Hospital located in Seosan were selected and measured of average length of cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID. The incidence angle was calculated from the applied formula by measuring average values per age groups and sex (see Formula 1 and 2). The average length of cervical vertebra was 6cm: the length was increased from teenagers to twenties but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 1cm (p<.01). The OID was almost the same regardless of age groups and sex. As for axis angle, the slope was increased in teenagers and twenties, but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 2 degrees (p<.01). The FID measurements were almost the same regardless of age groups and sex, and when the incidence angle was measured from these values, the teenagers were 15.9 degrees, the twenties were 16.9 degrees, the thirties were 16.6 degrees, the forties were 16.2 degrees, the fifties were 15.9 degrees, and the sixties were 14.5 degrees, indicating that the angle was increased from teenagers to the twenties but decreased since the thirties. While the angles of males and females were measured to be the same in the teenagers, the angle was different between males and females by 2 degrees. When the incidence angle statistically analyzed with measurement of average length of cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID, all of them were shown to have correlations with the incidence angle (p<.01). Conclusively, it was shown that the incidence angle was measured differently from average length of cervical vertebra, OID, FID, and axis slope, as well as from age and sex. Therefore, it can be suggested that the anteroposterior radiation test for cervical vertebra should be conducted by different incidence angles based on age and sex. The data of this study may be used as reference in determining the incidence angle of cervical vertebra tests for the future.
[en] To determine the clinical and radiological features of peripheral osteoma of the mandible (POM) in a Korean population and to compare with previous reports. Sixteen cases of POM found in 15 Korean patients who visited Seoul National University Dental Hospital between 1980 and 1998 were reviewed to determine their clinical and radiological features. The 15 patients, five males and ten females, ranged in age from 22 to 69 years, with a mean age of 40.7 years. Six POMs were located on the buccal side of the mandibular body and five on the lingual aspect of the mandibular body and five on the lower border of the mandible. The duration of the lesion ranged between 1 and 10 years. The size of the lesions, in their great diameter, ranged from 6 mm to 26 mm, with a mean of 14.1 mm. Six POMs were pedunculated, nine sessile, and one bell-shaped. Eleven POMs were compact types and five were cancellous ones. The clinical and radiological features of these Korean series were broadly consistent with those of non-Korean populations reported previously. The principal difference was that all POMs under 35 year-old age were compact types.
[en] A technique for roentgenologic examination called diplotomography is suggested to study the functional state of temporomandibubular joints and the motion of the lower jaw. The process of diplotomography and its advantages against conventional tomography are described. 3 refs.; 2 figs