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[en] The purpose of the present study was to investigate associations between periapical and bitewing techniques by assessing the crestal alveolar bone. This article also reports the ability of these two techniques to correctly detect evidence of interproximal dental caries, and comparison between the interproximal overlapping of teeth. Bitewing and periapical radiographs were used from posterior quadrants of 243 dental students in Seoul National University. The distance from cemento-enamel junction to the alveolar crest (CEJ-AC) was measured for each proximal surface from the distal of cuspid to the distal of second molar. Data were arranged according to the proximal surface examined, and bitewing and periapical measurements were compared using paired tests. The obtained results were as follows: 1. In maxilla, a significant ratio with a P value of 0.05 or les reached for 100% and in mandible, reached for 94%. 2. The anatomic limitations imposed on periapical radiographic technique, most often result in somewhat foreshortened radiographic images. This situation would tend to be accentuated by the anatomical restrictions of the hard palate. 3. Consequently, since the significant differences frequently exist between measurements obtained from bitewing and periapical techniques, it is importance to define which technique is used. 4. The number of the interproximal overlapping was the largest media side of the maxillary second molar, while the smallest at the distal side of the mandibular second premolar. And the overall number of the interproximal overlapping was more (538) in the periapical technique than in the bitewing technique (372). 5. The interproximal dental carious lesions were detected more (74) on the bitewing films than on the periapical ones (23). The fact was resulted from the small number of interproximal overlapping and relative easiness of obtaining horizontal angulation in taking the bitewing radiographs.
[en] Three cases of florid osseous dysplasia of the jaw were investigated. Radiographs showed sclerotic, globular and ground glass opacities throughout the jaws. Two cases were asymptomatic but one case failed to heal following extraction of the mandibular molar and infection complicated the disease. These cases appear to represent the most exuberant manifestations of this reactive benign fibro-osseous lesion of the jaws.
[en] This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.
[en] A technique for roentgenologic examination called diplotomography is suggested to study the functional state of temporomandibubular joints and the motion of the lower jaw. The process of diplotomography and its advantages against conventional tomography are described. 3 refs.; 2 figs
[en] Magnetic resonance imaging with its superior soft tissue contrast resolution and absence of beam hardening artifacts, combined with its ability to perform multiplanar imaging, is now effective tool in diagnostic imagings. Magnetic resonance is primarily a phenomenon that involves atomic nuclei. It provides totally new clinical information with no known hazards through the use of very weak interactions with endogenous stable magnetic atomic nuclei. This article briefly summarized the basic mechanism of generation and detection of the signals and general sorts of tissue properties which can influence the signals and thereby give rise to tissue contrast. It also describes how the machine-operating parameters can be used to manipulate the tissue contrast observed in the image.
[en] The purpose of this paper is to explain the making procedure and the usage of receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) for interpretation of radiographic images. The conventional radiograms obtained after the creation of the lesions in the acrylic plates and were enhanced in color. The observer were informed of which tooth to examine, the 'a priori' probability of a lesion present and the approximate diameter of the lesions. The two groups of films were interpreted separately by the same observer using the same rating scale. The following rating scale was used: A; definitely no lesion, B; probably no lesion, C; not sure, D; probably a lesion, and E; definitely a lesion. In analysis, for each observer the diagnostic results in terms of true positive (TP) and false positive (FP) decisions were plotted on a graph. The lowest point on the graph represents the TP and FP when only decisions designated as E according to the rating scale are included. The next point shows the TP and FP values when diagnoses designated as D are added and so forth. By connecting such plot points, a receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) is obtained. The area under the curve represents the diagnostic accuracy resulting from a diagnostic performance at pure chance level and a value of 1.0 at perfect performance. This method has been known as an useful method to detect the minute difference for each radiographic technic, each observer and for the different lesion depths.
[en] This study was to evaluate the beam quality of intraoral X-ray equipment used at Yonsei University Dental Hospital (YUDH) using the half value layer (HVL) and the characteristic curve of intraoral standard X-ray film. The study was done using the intraoral X-ray equipment used at each clinical department at YUDH. Aluminum filter was used to determine the HVL. Intraoral standard film was used to get the characteristic curve of each intraoral X-ray equipment. Most of the HVLs of intraoral X-ray equipment were higher than the least recommended thickness, but the REX 601 model used at the operative dentistry department and the X-707 model used at the pediatric dentistry department had HVLs lower than the recommended thickness. The slopes of the characteristic curves of films taken using the PANPAS 601 model and REX 601 model at operative dentistry department, the X-70S model of prosthodontic dentistry department, and the REX 601 model at the student clinic were relatively low. HVL and the characteristic curve of X-ray film can be used to evaluate the beam quality of intraoral X-ray equipment. In order to get the best X-ray films with the least radiation exposure to patients and best diagnostic information in clinical dentistry, X-ray equipment should be managed in the planned and organized fashion.
[en] Several panoramic indices have been suggested to assess bone quality from the morphology and width of mandibular cortex on panoramic radiography. The purpose of this study was to compare dental implant failure group with control group in panoramic mandibular index (PMI), mandibular cortical index (MCI), and gonion index (GI) and to determine the effect of these panoramic indices on dental implant failure. A case-control study was designed. Test group (n = 42) consisted of the patients who had their implants extracted because of peri-implantitis. Control group (n = 139) consisted of the patients who retained their implants over one year without any pathologic changes and had been followed up periodically. They had dental implants installed in their mandibles without bone augmentation surgery from 1991 to 2001. The following measures were collected for each patients: 1) PMI, MCI, and GI were measured twice at one-week interval on preoperative panoramic views; and 2) age, sex, implant length, implant type, installed location, occluding dentition state, and complication were investigated from the chart record. The PMI showed moderate level of repeatability. The intra-observer agreement of MCI and GI were good. There was statistically significant difference in PMI between two groups. There were significant different patterns of distribution of MCI and GI between two groups. Among the panoramic indices, PMI and MCI showed significant correlation with dental implant failure. Panoramic indices can be used as reference data in estimating bone quality of edentulous patients who are to have implants installed in their mandibles.
[en] The purpose of this study was to compare the interpretation results of the panoramic radiographs with those of intraoral radiographs in evaluation of alveolar bone loss. All radiographs were obtained from 100 patients who had visited the Dental Infirmary of Kyunpook National University Hospital for periodontal state evaluation. The results were as follows: The percentages of interpretable sites were 95.9% (94.6% in maxilla, 97.4% in mandible) on the intraoral radiographs, and 90.7% (84.0% in maxilla, 97.3% in mandible) on panoramic radiographs. The concordance of interpretation scores of marginal bone loss between intraoral and panoramic radiographs was 66.3% (65.6% in maxilla, 66.8% in mandible). And according to the site, the highest concordance was in distal surface of the mandibular 2nd premolar ant 82.0%, and the distal surface of the mandibular 1st premolar (76.8%), the distal surface of the maxillary central incisor (75.8%), the mesial surface of the 2nd premolar (75.0%) in descending order of frequency. According to the interpretation scores of the marginal bone loss, the percentages of concordance between intraoral and panoramic radiographs were the highest on the score 10 at 76.4%, and the lowest on the score 8, 9. And the percentages of concordance were inverse proportional rate from the score 5 to the score 9. Number of the observed sites of the function involvement in bitewing and panoramic radiographs were 268 sites, and the percentage of interpretable sites was 92.9% in bitewing radiographs and 86.6% in panoramic radiographs. And the concordance rate of interpretation was 79.5%.
[en] A number of panoramic radiographic images of the condylar head at various horizontal angulations were compared. A small artificial osteophyte was attached to the eight different portions of the condylar head and a small hole was created in four different portions of the condylar head. Three oral and maxillofacial radiologists evaluated the panoramic condylar images. The following results were obtained; 1. Osteophyte in the superomedial, anterocentral and anterolateral portions could be detected easily, but those in the lateral, superolateral and medial portions were very hard to identify. 2. The greater the condylar horizontal angle, the easier it was to detect an osteophyte. But there was no statistically significant difference except between 0 and 40 degrees of horizontal angulation. 3. Holes in the anterocentral and superocentral portions could be detected easily, but those in the lateral and medial portions were very hard to identify. There were no differences between the various condylar horizontal angles.