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[en] The nonlinear properties of MHD surface waves in the solar atmosphere are investigated analytically, assuming that the fluid is incompressible and that the waves are confined to a single surface, with semiinfinite regions on both sides. The governing equations are derived in detail, and qualitative results are presented in a graph. For propagating waves, second-order terms in the wave amplitude are found to lead to wave steepening at leading or trailing edges, the steepening rate becoming very large as the threshold for the linear Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is approached. Second-order effects on standing waves include crest and trough sharpening (increasing with time), a current independent of distance on the surface but decreasing exponentially with distance from the surface, and pressure-field fluctuations of infinite extent. It is suggested that these effects could account for a large fraction of solar-atmosphere heating. 23 references
[en] We investigate if the super-saturation phenomenon observed at X-ray wavelengths for the corona exists in the chromosphere for rapidly rotating late-type stars. Moderate resolution optical spectra of fast-rotating EUV- and X-ray-selected late-type stars were obtained. Stars in α Per were observed in the northern hemisphere with the Isaac Newton 2.5 m telescope and Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph. Selected objects from IC 2391 and IC 2602 were observed in the southern hemisphere with the Blanco 4 m telescope and R-C spectrograph at CTIO. Ca II H and K fluxes were measured for all stars in our sample. We find the saturation level for Ca II K at log (LCaK/Lbol) = -4.08. The Ca II K flux does not show a decrease as a function of increased rotational velocity or smaller Rossby number as observed in the X-ray. This lack of 'super-saturation' supports the idea of coronal stripping as the cause of saturation and super-saturation in stellar chromospheres and coronae, but the detailed underlying mechanism is still under investigation.
[en] Chromospheric activity is found in ten types of stars, both single and binary. Variability at many time scales is reviewed, from minutes to centuries. The emphasis is on what is not understood, incorrectly understood, and understood but not appreciated. Observational results in hand include photometry, spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, speckle interferometry, magnetic fields, and orbital period variations. Certain physical mechanisms responsible for variability are discussed, making the distinction between the well-established, the suspected, and the possible. Specific topics include flares, rotation, differential rotation, synchronization, circularization, starspots, spot models, migration periods, spot cycles, magnetic activity cycles, sector structure, Maunder minima, pulsation, light curve solutions, convective envelope changes, mass transfer, mass loss, and orbital period variations. Specific directions for future research are identified. (author). 2 tabs., 97 refs
[en] An analysis of solar velocity data obtained at the Stanford Solar Observatory shows the existence of solar global oscillations in the range 45-105 μHz. The oscillations are interpreted as internal gravity modes of degree 1=1 and 1=2. A good estimate of the order of the modes has also been made. (author)
[en] The solar chromosphere is identified with the atmosphere inside magnetic flux tubes. Between the temperature minimum and the 7000 K level, the chromosphere in the bright points of the quiet sun is heated by large-amplitude, long-period, compressive waves with periods mainly between 2 and 4 minutes. These waves do not observe the cutoff condition according to which acoustic waves with periods longer than 3 minutes do not propagate vertically in the upper solar photosphere. It is concluded that the long-period waves probably supply all the energy required for the heating of the bright points in the quiet solar chromosphere. 42 refs
[en] Obstacles encountered in the fields of atmospheric modeling and line synthesis are discussed with attention focused on the following: (1) velocity fields, (2) thermal inhomogeneities, (3) geometry, and (4) finite computing resources. It is noted that in some cases, such as global P-mode oscillations, the velocity fields are indicative of fundamental solar properties; in others, such as turbulence in the upper chromosphere and lower transition zone, these fields signify the operation of energy transport and dissipation mechanisms. With regard to geometry, particular emphasis is placed on the vertical spreading of magnetic flux tubes. It is concluded that in order to solve the current problems in this field, high-quality ultraviolet, optical and infrared observations of the sun from space must be obtained
[en] The standard mathematical procedures in Helioseismology field are based on normal mode approach for various models of solar interior and atmosphere. We consider a two region model of a system solar interior and solar atmosphere. For simplicity, the two different regions are assumed quasi-isothermal, semi-infinite, without magnetic fields and separated by a boundary z=0. It was found useful to phrase of stability as initial value problem (IPV) in order to ensure the inclusion of certain continuum modes otherwise neglected. In addition to discrete mode (f-mode), sets of continuum modes due to a branch cuts in the complex plane, not treated explicitly in the literature, appears. It will be seen that an ambiguity of the usual normal mode method is avoided.
[en] Doppler imaging analysis allows use of the information contained in a time sequence of spectral line profiles to deduce the size, location, and surface flux of regions of contrasting brightness on rotating stars. We have used IUE observations to study the structure of the lower chromosphere of AR Lacertae in the light of Mg II k. We have obtained sequences of LWR/P-HI images distributed around the binary period at three epochs. We have identified discrete plage-like regions of enhanced Mg II surface flux in this system. There are temporal variations in the Mg II flux on timescales of hours as well as substantial changes in chromospheric morphology on timescales of years. Even with the limited S/N attainable with the IUE, one can map the gross structures of active stellar atmospheres. With such information, one can begin to study the true 3-D structure of the atmospheres of late-type stars
[en] This work investigates the response of the solar atmosphere to mechanical and thermal driving due to global solar oscillations. It was discovered that the coupling of thermal and mechanical modes was very important in reconciling theoretical predictions of the expected change in the solar limb due to solar oscillations and experimental observations of the variability in the solar limb darkening function undertaken at SCLERA (Santa Catalina Laboratory for Experimental Relativity). The coupling between the thermal and mechanical modes occur mainly due to the nonlocal nature of the radiation field. Previous theoretical calculations that used approximations for the radiative transfer that ignored the nonlocal nature of the radiation field predicted expected temperature perturbations (compared to the fluid displacement) that were much too small to be observed. Much larger ratios were found when the radiative transfer was treated properly. A particular solar oscillation can be influenced by the presence of a large number of other modes, if these modes can change the average properties of the medium. If the basic nonlinear equations are statistically averaged, the influence of the mean field can be investigated. This nonlinear effect can become important in the analysis for single modes in the upper photosphere