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[en] Neutrinos play an essential role in determining the outcome of formation of nuclei in core-collapse supernovae or in the neutrino-driven winds of neutron star mergers. It has been shown in recent years that neutrino oscillations among active flavors or between the active and a possible sterile state may happen in these astrophysical environments to influence the result of nucleosynthesis. We have examined in detail the effect of neutrino oscillations on different nucleosynthesis processes in these astrophysical environments, and the results are discussed.
[en] In this paper we show that noncommutativity in spatial coordinates can generate magnetic field in the early Universe on a horizon scale. The strength of such a magnetic field depends on the number density of massive charged particles present at a given moment. This allows us to trace back the temperature dependence of the noncommutativity scale from the bounds on primordial magnetic field coming from nucleosynthesis
[en] The data on the synthesis, structure and chemical transformations of 2-(het)arylhydrazono-1,3-dicarbonyl compounds is surveyed. The synthetic potential and possible applications of the title compounds are analyzed.
[en] Experimental evidence on the existence of AB2X4 compounds in A-B-X systems (A and B are any elements of the periodic system, in particular, rare earth elements, X is S or Se) and the data on the properties of elements and simple sulphides (selenides) were used for an attempt to find the probability of formation of AB2X4 compounds as a function of the component properties. The experimental evidence was analyzed by a computer employing algorithms of concept formation training. The results were used to predict new AB2X4 compounds. The computer training method proved an efficient means of revealing the connection between probability of spinel type compounds existence with the component properties. Certain compounds of general formula AB2X4 were predicted and the probability that they possess spinel structure was evaluated
[en] Ca-Al refractory inclusions with characteristic chemical and mineralogical compositions show an enhanced occurrence of 20 pct of isotope anomalies reflecting unknown nucleosynthetic effects for O and Mg. The anomalies are characterized by large isotope fractionation in Mg, apparent deficits in Mg-26/Mg-24, and large correlated effects for isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr. These isotope patterns define exotic components depleted in the most neutron-rich isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr, or components depleted in isotopes produced in explosive O and Si burning. An opaque assemblage within one of the inclusions yields isotope anomalies in Cr similar to the bulk inclusion and must be intrinsically part of the inclusion and not a trapped, foreign grain aggregate. 23 refs
[en] A critical barrier to the routine use of nanomaterials is the tedious, expensive means of their synthesis. Microreaction technology takes advantage of the large surface area-to-volume ratios within microchannel structures to accelerate heat and mass transport. This accelerated transport allows for rapid changes in reaction temperatures and concentrations leading to more uniform heating and mixing which can have dramatic impacts on macromolecular yields and nanoparticle size distributions. Benefits of microreaction technology include higher yield and reactant conversion, better energy efficiency and less by-product generation. Microreactors can help minimize the environmental impact of nanoproduction by enabling solvent free mixing, integrated separation techniques and reagent recycling. The possibility of synthesizing nanomaterials in the required volumes at the point-of-use eliminates the need to store and transport potentially hazardous materials and provides the flexibility for tailoring complex functional nanomaterials. Recognizing these benefits for nanosynthesis, continuous flow microreactors have been used by several research groups to synthesize and characterize nanomaterials. An overview of these efforts and issues related to scale up and other post synthesis processes such as separation and deposition are presented in this paper.
[en] The processes and problems of big bang nucleosynthesis are considered. Powerful laser pulses allow us to obtain high energy density in matter. Thus, laboratory modeling of big bang nucleosynthesis becomes feasible. Results of experiments on the picosecond laser facility ‘Neodymium’ and on the femtosecond terawatt laser are reported. Further investigations of this topic are discussed. (paper)
[en] The structural characterization of CalO1 is reported. The X-ray structure determination at 2.4 Å resolution of the putative orsellinic acid C3 O-methyltransferase (CalO1) involved in calicheamicin biosynthesis is reported. Comparison of CalO1 with a homology model of the functionally related calicheamicin orsellinic acid C2 O-methyltransferase (CalO6) implicates several residues that are likely to contribute to the regiospecificity of alkylation. Consistent with the proposed requirement of an acyl-carrier-protein-bound substrate, this structural study also reveals structural determinants within CalO1 that are anticipated to accommodate an association with an acyl carrier protein
[en] The distribution of enriched material in the stars and gas of our Galaxy contains information pertaining to the chemical evolution of the Milky Way from its formation epoch to the present, providing general constraints on theories of galaxy formation. The authors show that consideration of the chemical properties of the thick-disk population of the Galaxy results in a self-consistent model for galactic chemical evolution. (author)