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[en] The economics of upgrader development are discussed. Each project must take advantage of all available synergies and must be a good fit in the overall oil sand consumer system. Back integration with the field can consider higher solids and water feeds. Forward integration with refineries and product users can consider residues and lower conversions. Sidewise integration should consider other liquid feedstocks, hydrogen supply, addition of natural gas conversion, electricity production, gas supply, and pipelines. An initial fast-tracked system of 5,000 m3/d is the optimum starting point. Small size denotes maximizing modular construction, local inputs, small project team/rapid decision making, simplified paperwork, minimum utilities, minimum but flexible plant staff, etc
[en] This conference brought experts together to explore the challenges faced and opportunities available in the dynamic emerging market for heavy oil which Latin America offers. The conference was attended by over 700 delegates from around the world representing official and private agencies, Latin American governments, national oil companies and service companies in heavy oil producing countries. These participants were given the opportunity to learn about the entire value chain of Latin America's heavy oil industry, with emphasis on balancing challenging environmental and social issues with operational best practices, and they also the opportunity to share their knowledge and expertise with their peers. 17 of the 29 papers presented during this conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.
[en] This article discussed ideas proposed at the Clean Bitumen Technology Action Plan Workshop hosted by the Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada (PTAC), which had the goal of exploring how to facilitate the development of breakthrough technologies for the oilsands. Detractors target the environmental and health impacts of the oilsands industry, leading operators to increase efforts to improve performance on the environmental front and communicate existing efforts at stewardship. The article suggested that more radical effort is required, notably that operators need to speed up the pace of technological innovation to realize concrete and quantitative improvements in performance. It also cautioned that although better collaboration is essential, talk does not always translate into action. Competitive advantage hinders collaboration in some areas, but there are no barriers to sharing knowledge about health and safety, and this approach could be expanded to the environmental sphere even though process-efficiency improvements often translate into competitive advantage. The gap between concept and commercialization was identified as the main obstacle to the development of breakthrough technologies. 1 fig.
[en] In this project the temperature effect on four types of bitumens mixed with Sodium nitrate salt in percentages of 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 at various periods of time was studied. It was observed that the increase in temperature and heating time causes an increase in salt separation for all types of bitumen
[en] The dynamics of the heavy oil industry are examined, including prices, market demand, supply and supply costs. Price assumptions are provided for the reference case oil price (west Texas intermediate at Cushing). Supply cost methodology is explained. Capital and operating costs for various heavy oil and synthetic sources are derived from modeling results. The range of supply costs for heavy oil and bitumen from various sources, supply costs in terms of reference case market values and in terms of 1995-1996 average market values for Bow River crude, are derived. The CERI long term supply forecast model is explained. Western Canada upstream oil and gas cash flow and capital expenditures, eastern Canada exploration and expenditures by hydrocarbon type, and Canadian heavy oil and bitumen production based on reference case prices are estimated. Based on these projections the outlook for heavy oil at reference case prices for better than average quality resources is judged to be economic. Lower quality resources will require technology gains for successful commercialization. SAGD is a likely candidate in this respect. Again based on reference prices, production is forecast to decline by 100 Kb/d over the next five years. Diluent supply is considered to be adequate throughout the forecast period. As far as thermal bitumen is concerned, the growth could, in fact, exceed the projection, but if so, more upgrading will be required. 11 figs
[en] Asphalt binder being a high weight hydrocarbon contains asphaltene and maltene and is widely used as cementing materials in the construction of flexible pavements. Its performance in hot mix asphalt also depends on combining with different proportions of aggregates. The main objective of this study was to characterize asphalt cement rheological behavior and to investigate the influence of asphalt on asphalt-aggregate mixtures prepared with virgin binders and using polymers. Binder rheology and mixtures stiffness were determined under a range of cyclic loadings and temperature conditions. Master curves were developed for the evaluation of relationship between parameters like complex modulus and phase angle at different frequencies. Horizontal shift factors were also computed to determine time and temperature response of binders and mixes. The results showed that the stiffness of both the binder and the mixes depends on temperature and frequency of load. Polymer modified binder is least susceptible to temperature variations as compared to other virgin asphalt cement. Performance of asphalt mixtures can be predicted from those of asphalt binders using the master curve technique. (author)
[en] Highlights: • The repeated stress sweep accurately characterizes the nonlinear dynamic shear moduli of asphalt up to 5% strain amplitude. • The nonlinear dynamic shear moduli of asphalt at high strains can be back-calculated from linear amplitude sweep results. • The consideration of nonlinear viscoelasticity improves simplified viscoelastic continuum damage predictions of fatigue life. Fatigue cracking is a primary distress in asphalt pavements caused by the accumulation of damage under repeated traffic loading. Asphalt binder is the weakest constituent of asphalt mixture. Therefore, the inherent fatigue resistance of the asphalt binder contained within the pavement is anticipated to influence pavement performance. The simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model has been applied to predict fatigue life of asphalt binders under varying loading and thermal conditions using time sweep and linear amplitude sweep (LAS) test results. The majority of past efforts using S-VECD analysis protocol have neglected the effects of material nonlinearity and attributed all material integrity loss to damage for the sake of simplicity. Herein, experimental and analytical methods are evaluated for delineating damage and nonlinearity in fatigue testing of asphalt binder. None of the experimental methods evaluated enabled accurate separation of damage and nonlinearity at the high strain amplitudes included in LAS tests. Therefore, an analytical method using S-VECD modeling was proposed to back calculate nonlinear dynamic shear moduli from LAS test results. Results can be used to generate a nonlinear S-VECD model which allows for improved fatigue life predictions.