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[en] The economics of upgrader development are discussed. Each project must take advantage of all available synergies and must be a good fit in the overall oil sand consumer system. Back integration with the field can consider higher solids and water feeds. Forward integration with refineries and product users can consider residues and lower conversions. Sidewise integration should consider other liquid feedstocks, hydrogen supply, addition of natural gas conversion, electricity production, gas supply, and pipelines. An initial fast-tracked system of 5,000 m3/d is the optimum starting point. Small size denotes maximizing modular construction, local inputs, small project team/rapid decision making, simplified paperwork, minimum utilities, minimum but flexible plant staff, etc
[en] This conference brought experts together to explore the challenges faced and opportunities available in the dynamic emerging market for heavy oil which Latin America offers. The conference was attended by over 700 delegates from around the world representing official and private agencies, Latin American governments, national oil companies and service companies in heavy oil producing countries. These participants were given the opportunity to learn about the entire value chain of Latin America's heavy oil industry, with emphasis on balancing challenging environmental and social issues with operational best practices, and they also the opportunity to share their knowledge and expertise with their peers. 17 of the 29 papers presented during this conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.
[en] In this project the temperature effect on four types of bitumens mixed with Sodium nitrate salt in percentages of 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 at various periods of time was studied. It was observed that the increase in temperature and heating time causes an increase in salt separation for all types of bitumen
[en] This article discussed ideas proposed at the Clean Bitumen Technology Action Plan Workshop hosted by the Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada (PTAC), which had the goal of exploring how to facilitate the development of breakthrough technologies for the oilsands. Detractors target the environmental and health impacts of the oilsands industry, leading operators to increase efforts to improve performance on the environmental front and communicate existing efforts at stewardship. The article suggested that more radical effort is required, notably that operators need to speed up the pace of technological innovation to realize concrete and quantitative improvements in performance. It also cautioned that although better collaboration is essential, talk does not always translate into action. Competitive advantage hinders collaboration in some areas, but there are no barriers to sharing knowledge about health and safety, and this approach could be expanded to the environmental sphere even though process-efficiency improvements often translate into competitive advantage. The gap between concept and commercialization was identified as the main obstacle to the development of breakthrough technologies. 1 fig.
[en] Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a new sustainable technology that gives an economic and environmental beneficial value by means of production temperature decrease of the asphalt mixture by (10-40) °C. The difference between conventional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) and WMA mixes were analyzed, in this study, in term of marshall properties which conducted on specimens are produced of: Al-Nibaae source aggregate and Al-Dorah Refinery source asphalt binder (40/50 PEN) modified by two organic additives (Asphaltan A and Asphaltan B). The laboratory tests to determine the mechanical properties of asphalt binder and aggregates are conducted. Two types of aggregate gradation mixtures are designed to perform HMA and WMA preparations using Marshall design method. Doses of 1, 2, and 3% of the additives by total weight of asphalt binder were chosen. WMA mixtures are prepared at 40 °C less than HMA specimens and produced by the same procedure. Many changes on mechanical and physical properties are observed due to the existence of the additives and dosages. The results show that the resulted properties are enhanced by using Asphaltan A and Asphaltan B as WMA additives to the Iraqi asphalt binder. (paper)
[en] Mechanomutable asphalt materials (MAMs) are being developed as a key contribution towards the evolution of smart roads. MAMs are composed of a matrix of asphalt materials modified with metallic fibres that can be activated with magnetic fields. By controlling the physical domain of the magnetic fields, it is possible to manage the mechanical performance of MAMs, and consequently transform the pavement into a smart structure that is capable of reacting efficiently to the requirements of traffic and weather. This paper describes the results obtained from a study conducted using a resonance frequency test to evaluate the mechanical performance of the dynamic modulus of various sizes of specimens of MAM mortars under the activation of various intensities of magnetic field. MAM mortars containing two different quantities of metallic fibres were used to manufacture specimens of two different sizes that were evaluated under various temperatures. The findings indicate that the dynamic modulus of the MAMs is affected by both the intensity of the magnetic field applied and the fibre content, but not by the size of the specimen, therefore, just the two first aforementioned variables should be considered in the design of MAMs for the construction of smart roads. (paper)
[en] Rutting of asphalt pavement is one of major patters premature damage modes experienced during the service period of pavement. Aggregate characteristics, especially aggregate gradation can affect the rutting performance of asphalt pavement. In order to investigate the influence of spatial structure on rutting performance, the volumetric indices such as VV, VMA and VCA were employed to characterize the spatial structure of asphalt mixture, and five different gradations of asphalt mixtures with three types of aggregate skeleton structure were prepared to conduct rutting measurement by wheel tracking test. It is demonstrated that aggregate particle size of 4.75-9.5mm can affect forming aggregate skeleton structure and rutting performance. Rutting depth at a certain period of time are concerned with VV and types of aggregate skeleton structure, and the VCAratio equal to one can be used as critical value to evaluate the types of aggregate skeleton structure. It is also indicated that fine aggregate can decrease the value of VMA and excellent stability in high-temperature of asphalt mixture should match suitable VMA. This study provides a significant reference for asphalt design and choice of aggregate gradation. (paper)
[en] This research used waste denim fiber (WDF) as a new modifier to mitigate the inconsistency problem of bio-asphalt that incorporated waste cooking oil (WCO). Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to design and analyze the experimental data. 16 blends of base and bio-asphalt binders were prepared with high shear mixer and evaluated by conducting penetration, ring and ball temperature and temperature susceptibility tests. Optimization of the properties was performed by RSM to come up with the optimum amount of the additives that can be recommended. Results showed that the addition of waste denim fiber reduced the penetration values and increased the ring and ball temperature and the penetration index of base and WDF-modified bio-asphalt binders. These findings reveal that WDF-modified bio-asphalt binders can perform well at the intermediate and high-temperature pavement applications. Numerical optimization results utilizing the developed models exhibited that optimum properties can be achieved with 5% of WCO and 6% of WDF. (paper)