Results 1 - 10 of 102
Results 1 - 10 of 102. Search took: 0.019 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Surface heat flow has been observed to be highly variable in the Nankai subduction margin. This study presents an investigation of local anomalies in surface heat flows on the undulating seafloor in the Nankai subduction margin. We estimate the heat flows from bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) marking the lower boundaries of the methane hydrate stability zone and evaluate topographic effects on heat flow via two-dimensional thermal modeling. BSRs have been used to estimate heat flows based on the known stability characteristics of methane hydrates under low-temperature and high-pressure conditions. First, we generate an extensive map of the distribution and subseafloor depths of the BSRs in the Nankai subduction margin. We confirm that BSRs exist at the toe of the accretionary prism and the trough floor of the offshore Tokai region, where BSRs had previously been thought to be absent. Second, we calculate the BSR-derived heat flow and evaluate the associated errors. We conclude that the total uncertainty of the BSR-derived heat flow should be within 25%, considering allowable ranges in the P-wave velocity, which influences the time-to-depth conversion of the BSR position in seismic images, the resultant geothermal gradient, and thermal resistance. Finally, we model a two-dimensional thermal structure by comparing the temperatures at the observed BSR depths with the calculated temperatures at the same depths. The thermal modeling reveals that most local variations in BSR depth over the undulating seafloor can be explained by topographic effects. Those areas that cannot be explained by topographic effects can be mainly attributed to advective fluid flow, regional rapid sedimentation, or erosion. Our spatial distribution of heat flow data provides indispensable basic data for numerical studies of subduction zone modeling to evaluate margin parallel age dependencies of subducting plates. .
[en] The N-E Sardinia batholith is part of the European Variscan belt which is generally considered an example for hot collisional orogens. After a period of crustal thickening characterized by lower gradients, during Late Carboniferous and Early Permian times, higher geothermal gradients were diffusively established. The sources which contributed to the thermal budget of late Variscan high-temperature events are still debated. One of the hypothesis(1) considers an extra contribution by radioactive heating of felsic crust tectonically emplaced at the bottom of a Palaeozoic orogenic root. It is apparent that a detailed characterization of heat-producing elements (K, U and Th) of Sardinian Variscan crust are needed by the Earth Science community. This study focus on this goal reporting the results of an extensive survey on the base of gamma-ray measurements performed in the laboratory and in situ. The K, U and Th abundances obtained for the main lithotypes of Sardinia batholiths will be used as input for modeling the geodynamic and thermal evolution of the South Variscan Belt
[en] Permafrost accounts for about 52% of the total area of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the permafrost area is about 140 x 104 km2. The mean annual ground temperature of permafrost ranges from -0.1 to -5 deg. C, and lower than -5 deg. C at extreme high-mountains. Permafrost thickness ranges from 10 to 139.4 m by borehole data, and more than 200 m by geothermal gradients. The permafrost geothermal gradient ranges from 1.1 deg. C/100 m to 8.0 deg. C/100 m with an average of 2.9 deg. C/100 m, and the geothermal gradient of the soil beneath permafrost is about 2.8-8.5 deg. C/100 m with an average of 6.0 deg. C/100 m in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. For a minimum of permafrost geothermal gradients of 1.1 deg. C/100 m, the areas of the potential occurrence of methane hydrate (sI) is approximately estimated to be about 27.5% of the total area of permafrost regions in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. For an average of permafrost geothermal gradients of 2.9 deg. C/100 m, the areas of the potential occurrence of methane hydrate (sI) is approximately estimated about 14% of the total area of permafrost regions in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. For the sII hydrate, the areas of the potential occurrence of sII hydrate are more than that of sI methane hydrate.
[en] Most of the computational work in the numerical simulation of fluid and heat flows in permeable media arises in the solution of large systems of linear equations. The simplest technique for solving such equations is by direct methods. However, because of large storage requirements and accumulation of roundoff errors, the application of direct solution techniques is limited, depending on matrix bandwidth, to systems of a few hundred to at most a few thousand simultaneous equations. T2CG1, a package of preconditioned conjugate gradient solvers, has been added to TOUGH2 to complement its direct solver and significantly increase the size of problems tractable on PCs. T2CG1 includes three different solvers: a Bi-Conjugate Gradient (BCG) solver, a Bi-Conjugate Gradient Squared (BCGS) solver, and a Generalized Minimum Residual (GMRES) solver. Results from six test problems with up to 30,000 equations show that T2CG1 (1) is significantly (and invariably) faster and requires far less memory than the MA28 direct solver, (2) it makes possible the solution of very large three-dimensional problems on PCs, and (3) that the BCGS solver is the fastest of the three in the tested problems. Sample problems are presented related to heat and fluid flow at Yucca Mountain and WIPP, environmental remediation by the Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System, and geothermal resources
[en] A Curie surface indicates the distribution of the thermal fields underground, providing a clear marker for the thermodynamic effect in the crust and mantle. In this paper, based on a geomagnetic field model (NGDC-720) and aeromagnetic data, we use power spectrum analysis of magnetic anomalies to estimate the Curie surface in Yunnan Province, China, and its adjacent areas. By combining the distribution of the Curie surface with regional heat flow, the geothermal gradient, crustal wave velocity ratio anomalies, high-conductivity layer anomalies, and the Moho surface, we reveal the connection between the undulation of the magnetic basement and the crustal structures. The results indicate that the uplift and depression of the Curie surface in the research area are distinct. The Curie surface is approximately inversely correlated to the surface heat flow. The Lijiang-Jianchuan-Baoshan-Tengchong and Jianchuan- Chuxiong- Kunming-Yuxi zones are two Curie surface uplift zones, and their crust-mantle heat flows are relatively high. The Curie surface uplift zone along the Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault and Red River fault is consistent with the heading direction of the fault zone and is partially in agreement with the eastward mass flow of the Tibetan Plateau. The Curie surface uplift zone is consistent with the high wave velocity ratio and high-conductivity layer anomaly region of the crust. The depth of the Curie surface is less than the depth of the Moho surface. .
[en] A geothermal gradient is one of the most frequently used parameters in logging geophysics. However, the drilling process greatly disturbs the temperature of the formations around the wellbore. For this reason, in order to determine with the required accuracy the formation temperatures and geothermal gradients, a certain length of shut-in time is required. It was shown earlier (Kutasov 1968 Freiberger Forshungshefte C 238 55–61, 1987 Geothermics 16 467–72) that at least two transient temperature surveys are needed to determine the geothermal gradient with adequate accuracy. However, in many cases only one temperature log is conducted in a shut-in borehole. For these cases, we propose an approximate method for the estimation of the geothermal gradient. The utilization of this method is demonstrated on four field examples
[en] Full text: The on- and offshore geology of the Namibian passive continental margin has experienced kilometer scale erosion since South Atlantic opening in Lower Cretaceous times. A vertical apatite fission track profile of four samples in the Namibian highland has been analysed to constrain the low temperature thermal history of that area since the Pan-African Damara Orogeny at about 550 Ma. As a temperature sensitive thermochronological technique apatite fission track analysis is a powerful tool in constraining the low temperature history of rocks over a range of 60-110 deg C. These temperatures, depending on the geothermal gradient, equal a burial depth of 3-5 km so the method can reconstruct the cooling history of rocks as they approached the surface in response to erosion and tectonic processes. The four apparent apatite cooling ages are taken over a vertical distance of 300 m from the Windhoek Graben 40 km north of Windhoek. Forward modelling of the age and track length distribution has shown that these samples experienced high palaeotemperatures from ca. 90 to 95 deg C in the Late Cretaceous. This information was used to calculate the palaeogeothermal gradient at that time (20 deg C/km) which gives an estimate of the sedimentary cover of about 4.5 km which has been removed over a few million years in the Late Cretaceous. It was previously thought that the Namibian highland has been exposed at the surface more or less since the Permo-Carboniferous. In fact the samples provide evidence for a post Carboniferous reburial history of several kilometers followed by a short period of accelerated denudation in the Late Cretaceous at about 70 Ma. This might imply a far larger extent of the Etendeka flood basalts (132 Ma) and/or an underestimated sedimentary Karoo (Permian to Jurassic) thickness. The wider importance of these four data is that they detect the geomorphic impact of a global change of plate motion along the passive margin of Namibia which is known from a more comprehensive dataset of another 180 fission track samples over a wide area of the country. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia
[en] The phase relations of K-richterite, KNaCaMg5Si8O22(OH)2, and phlogopite, K3Mg6 Al2SiO20(OH)2, have been investigated at pressures of 5-15 GPa and temperatures of 1000-1500 oC. K-richterite is stable to about 1450 oC at 9-10 GPa, where the dp/dT-slope of the decomposition curve changes from positive to negative. At 1000 oC the alkali-rich, low-Al amphibole is stable to more than 14 GPa. Phlogopite has a more limited stability range with a maximum thermal stability limit of 1350 oC at 4-5 GPa and a pressure stability limit of 9-10 GPa at 1000 oC. The high-pressure decomposition reactions for both of the phases produce relatively small amounts of highly alkaline water-dominated fluids, in combination with mineral assemblages that are relatively close to the decomposing hydrous phase in bulk composition. In contrast, the incongruent melting of K-richterite and phlogopite in the 1-3 GPa range involves a larger proportion of hydrous silicate melts. The K-richterite breakdown produces high-Ca pyroxene and orthoenstatite or clinoenstatite at all pressures above 4 GPa. At higher pressures additional phases are: wadeite-structured K2SiVISiIV3O9 at 10 GPa and 1500 oC, wadeite-structured K2SiVISiIV3O9 and phase X at 15 GPa and 1500 oC, and stishovite at 15 GPa and 1100 oC. The solid breakdown phases of phlogopite are dominated by pyrope and forsterite. At 9-10 GPa and 1100-1400 oC phase X is an additional phase, partly accompanied by clinoenstatite close to the decomposition curve. Phase X has variable composition. In the KCMSH-system (K2CaMg5Si8O22(OH)2) investigated by Inoue et al. (1998) and in the KMASH-system investigated in this report the compositions are approximately K4Mg8Si8O25(OH)2 and K3.7Mg7.4Al0.6Si8.0O25(OH)2, respectively. Observations from natural compositions and from the phlogopite-diopside system indicate that phlogopite-clinopyroxene assemblages are stable along common geothermal gradients (including subduction zones) to 8-9 GPa and are replaced by K-richterite at higher pressures. The stability relations of the pure end member phases of K-richterite and phlogopite are consistent with these observations, suggesting that K-richterite may be stable into the mantle transition zone, at least along colder slab geotherms. The breakdown of moderate proportions of K-richterite in peridotite in the upper part of the transition zone may be accompanied by the formation of the potassic and hydrous phase X. Additional hydrogen released by this breakdown may dissolve in wadsleyite. Therefore, very small amounts of hydrous fluids may be released during such a decomposition. (author)
[en] There are generally three main sources of temperature data-BHT data from log headers, production temperature data, and continuo's temperature logs. Analysis of continuous temperature profiles of over 100 wells in the Niger Delta two main thermal models (single leg and dogleg) are defined with occasional occurrence of a modified dogleg model.The dogleg model is characterised by a shallow interval of low geothermal gradient (<2C/100m) and a deeper interval of high geothermal gradient (>3.0.C/100m). This is characteristically developed onshore area is simple, requiring only consideration of heat transients, modelling in the onshore require modelling programmes with built in modules to handle convective heat flow dissipation in the shallow layer. Current work around methods would involve tweaking of thermal conductivity values to mimic the underlying heat flow process effects, or heat flow mapping above and below the depth of gradient change. These methods allow for more realistic thermal modelling, hydrocarbon type prediction, and also more accurate prediction of temperature prior to drilling and for reservoir rock properties. The regional distribution of the models also impact on regional hydrocarbon distribution pattern in the Niger Delta
[en] The subject of this article is a measurement of thermal flow under laboratory conditions. We define the thermal flow as an amount of heat transmitted through a surface of rock over a certain period of time. According to the Atlas of Geothermal Energy, thermal flow ranges from 40 to 120 mW/m2. It is not possible to measure it directly on the rock surface. The conventional ways of measurement is a 'separation bar' thermic conduction measurement system or measurement of the temperature of the rock in two different places at selected underground depth intervals. These measurements and analyses are not sufficient to make a final conclusion. It is necessary to repeat the measurements under real conditions. (authors)