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[en] Electron density was measured by Stark broadening in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster. The asymmetrical deconvolution is used to obtain Stark broadening. The result shows that the electron density in the discharge channel is 2.534x1022 m-3 when the discharge energy is 5 J and the measured electron temperature is 18 000 K, and it is in excellent agreement with other experimental and theoretical data. The electron density in the discharge channel increases very minimally with increasing discharge energy
[en] A kinetic model for the ionization processes in high-temperature air in a strong electric field is used to simulate numerically the effect of a low direct voltage on streamer breakdown in a long air gap between a spherical anode and a plane cathode. It is shown that the application of a low direct voltage strongly affects the discharge process after bridging the gap provided that the channel has been heated up to 3000 K by the completion of the high-voltage impulse. In this case a sudden voltage reduction does not lead to plasma decay; instead, the channel is slowly heated under the action of a low direct voltage and transforms into an arc channel for times lying in the microsecond range. The voltage required for the breakdown is noticeably less than the threshold of the leader process. The breakdown time strongly depends on the internal resistance of a voltage source
[en] The structure and properties of quasicrystals are discussed. The short-and long-range atomic orders and the effect of these factors on the physical characteristics are considered. It is noted that investigations of the physical properties of quasicrystals at temperatures above room temperature should be performed. Promising applications are briefly outlined
[en] Many years and great effort have been spent constructing the microscopic model for the room temperature multiferroic BiFeO3. However, earlier models implicitly assumed that the cycloidal wavevector was confined to one of the three-fold symmetric axes in the hexagonal plane normal to the electric polarization. Because recent measurements indicate that can be rotated by a magnetic field, it is essential to properly treat the anisotropy that confines at low fields. We propose that the anisotropy energy confines the wavevectors to the three-fold axis and within the hexagonal plane with .
[en] This paper presents the design, fabrication and calibration of a novel two-dimension microforce sensor with nano-Newton resolution. The sensor, mainly composed of a clamped–clamped beam (horizontal detecting beam), an overhanging beam (vertical detecting beam) and a half-folded beam, is highly sensitive to microforces in the horizontal (parallel to the probe of the designed sensor) and vertical (perpendicular to the wafer surface) directions. The four vertical sidewall surface piezoresistors (horizontal piezoresistors) and two surface piezoresistors (vertical piezoresistors) were fabricated to achieve the requirements of two-dimension microforce measurements. Combining the sensor structure with Wheatstone bridge configurations, the microforce decoupling among the x , y , and z direction can be realized. Accordingly, the sensor is capable of detecting microforces in the horizontal and vertical directions independently. The calibration results verified that the sensor sensitivities at room temperature are 210.58 V N−1and 159.2 V N−1 in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Additionally, the sensor’s corresponding force resolutions are estimated at 2 nN and 3 nN in theory, respectively. The sensor can be used to measure the contact force between manipulating tools and micro-objects, in fields such as microassembly and biological assays. (paper)
[en] Thermally evaporated (Fe 3 nm/Dy 2 nm) multilayers have been magnetically and chemically investigated. Three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) images related to multilayers revealed diffuse interfaces as well as the presence of Fe in Dy layers. Magnetic hysteresis loops measured on planar layers deposited on flat Si substrates show that the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is much higher for the multilayers deposited at 600 K as compared to 320 K. 3DAP elemental maps show concurrently that the layered structure is degraded at 600 K. 3DAP analysis concerning an Fe/Dy multilayer deposited at 320 K on flat-topped Si posts is presented, and shows asymmetric interfaces
[en] We have carried out a high magnetic field study on single crystalline stoichiometric , a material discussed in terms quantum criticality in itinerant ferromagnets, by means of high field resistivity experiments. Our experiments have been performed at the Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses in Toulouse, France. The resistivity of single crystalline , has been investigated in external fields up to 15.5 T aligned along the c-axis in the temperature range of 1.4–55 K. The main focus of our study lies on the method to extract TN from the magnetoresistivity measurements, because TN could not be easily observed in temperature dependent resistivity for stoichiometric .