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[en] This paper describes the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's (CNSC) approach in the development of the regulatory framework to control the import and export of radioactive sources in accordance with the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. CNSC's risk-informed regulatory principles serve as a guide in focussing efforts. (author)
[en] The U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory convened the Kitchen Cabinet (KC) to facilitate a candid discussion about the role of financial institutions (FIs) in antiproliferation efforts to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by identifying suspicious business transactions and exports when making lending or insurance decisions. The meeting brought together a group of export control specialists, largely representatives from the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Participating Governments (PGs) and finance experts representing banks and insurance companies. By assembling a KC of experts, the group could understand what suspicious transactions look like from each other's perspectives and better inform each of their operations. The goal was to develop red flags FIs could use to identify suspicious proliferation-related transactions and to help governments gain a clearer picture of proliferation using financial information.
[en] We study the problem of a seller who wants to maximize her revenue in situations where the outcome of the sale affects the nature of the future interaction between agents. We model those situations by assuming that an agent that does not acquire the object for sale incurs an externality that may depend both on the identity of the sufferer and on the identity of the final purchaser. We describe an optimal auction that has a unique Nash equilibrium in strictly dominant strategies. We show that: 1) Outside options are endogenously determined in equilibrium. Participation constraints and the ''threats'' in case of non-participation play an important role. 2) An optimizing seller can extract surplus also from buyers that do not obtain the auctioned object. 3) The seller is better off by not selling at all (while obtaining some payments) if externalities are large when compared to the pure profits that buyers achieve if they acquire the object. 4) The revenue-maximizing equilibrium is coalition-proof if buyers cannot organize side payments among themselves. (orig.)
[en] Summary of consequences on: Armament expenditure of the world, arms trade, arms race and nuclear weapon arsenals, nuclear weapon proliferation, nuclear safety controls, nuclear carrier systems, international nuclear trade, nuclear weapon accidents, chemical wars, war law, ecological wars, armament limitations. (HP)
[de]Zusammenfassung der Schlussfolgerungen ueber: Ruestungsausgaben der Welt, Waffenhandel, Wettruesten und Waffenarsenale, Verbreitung der Kernwaffen, nukleare Sicherheitskontrollen, nukleare Traegersysteme, internationale Nukleargeschaefte, Kernwaffenunfaelle, chemische Kriegsfuehrung, Kriegsrecht, oekologische Kriegsfuehrung, Ruestungsbegrenzung. (HP)
[en] In 1972 uranium producers from France, South Africa, Australia, Great Britain and Canada organized an international cartel to control the production and sale of uranium. The complicity of Australia in the manipulation of the market by and on behalf of C.R.A., Mary Kathleen Uranium, Pancontinental and Queensland Mines is discussed. The roles of both governments and companies and the antitrust implications of the cartel are considered
[en] This paper attempts to analyze the complex relations between energy prices and economic growth. In part 1, the history of the last 30 years is used to analyze the consequences of energy price variations on world economic growth. In part 2, two interpretation schemes are described successively. One has to do with the international oil market, and the other concerns the impact of oil shocks on national economies. In part 3, an approach by type of country leads to conclusions respectively for the industrialized countries, for the developing countries and for the newly industrialized countries. 1 fig
[en] Leading personalities in the field of nuclear energy worldwide assess possible improvements to the present nonproliferation regime and explore the possibilities for the internationalization of sensitive parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Their studies address past and current nonproliferation policies, the current controversy between the United States and its European allies on the development of fast breeder reactors and plutonium recycling, implications of the recent US Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 upon US/Euratom relations, industrial government relationships, safety concerns, and the special needs of developing countries. Their conclusions stress the recognition of complex factors such as military security, technical competition, the spread of nuclear technology, and politics that will limit any mechanism to govern nonproliferation. They urge greater effort in educating the public to the political and economic complexities of nuclear power and recommend strengthening international agreements and other arrangements, including controls and safeguards, and the general rules for the international trade of nuclear fuel. 11 figures, 7 tables
[en] Volume II of the study on the regulation of nuclear trade deals with the national legislation of OECD countries with significant nuclear programmes and regulations in that field and, in essence, covers two aspects. The first concerns political and administrative controls over imports and exports of sensitive products, namely fissile materials and large nuclear equipment as well as technology transfers. In most cases, this description of the provisions applicable is completed with the list of nuclear items whose export is restricted. The second aspect concerns the licensing system governing trade in as well as the import and export of nuclear material to protect users and the public against the hazards created by its radioactive properties. This volume also contains information on regulations concerning physical protection, industrial property and transport, as well as on multilateral and bilateral agreements involving nuclear trade. (NEA)
[fr]Le volume II de l'Etude sur la reglementation du commerce nucleaire est consacre aux legislations nationales de pays de l'OCDE ayant dans ce domaine des activites et une reglementation notables. Il porte principalement sur deux aspects: le premier a trait aux controles d'ordre politique et administratif exerces sur les importations et exportations de ces produits ''sensibles'' que sont les matieres fissiles ou les grands equipements nucleaires, et sur les transferts de technologie. L'analyse des dispositions applicables est completee dans la plupart des cas par le texte des listes d'articles nucleaires faisant l'objet de restrictions a l'exportation. Le deuxieme aspect concerne le regime d'autorisation relatif au commerce ainsi qu'a l'importation et l'exportation des matieres nucleaires en vue d'assurer la protection des utilisateurs et du public contre les dangers lies a leurs proprietes radioactives. Ce volume contient aussi des indications sur la reglementation relative a la protection physique, la propriete industrielle, les transports ainsi que sur les accords multilateraux et bilateraux interessant le commerce nucleaire
[en] The latency-associated nuclear antigens (LANA) of KSHV and macaque RFHVMn, members of the RV1 rhadinovirus lineage, are closely related with conservation of complex nuclear localization signals (NLS) containing bipartite KR-rich motifs and RG-rich domains, which interact distinctly with importins α and ß1 for nuclear import via classical and non-classical pathways, respectively. RV1 LANAs are expressed in the nucleus of latently-infected cells where they inhibit replication and establish a dominant RV1 latency. Here we show that LANA homologs of macaque RRV and MneRV2 from the more distantly-related RV2 lineage, lack the KR-rich NLS, and instead have a large RG-rich NLS with multiple RG dipeptides and a conserved RGG motif. The RG-NLS interacts uniquely with importin β1, which mediates nuclear import and accumulation of RV2 LANA in the nucleolus. The alternative nuclear import and localization of RV2 LANA homologs may contribute to the dominant RV2 lytic replication phenotype. - Highlights: • LANA homologs of RRV and MneRV2 rhadinoviruses contain an N-terminal RGG/RG NLS. • The RGG/RG NLS motifs of RV2 LANA homologs interact with importin beta1. • RV2 LANAs are imported to the nucleus and nucleolus via the non-classical pathway.
[en] Highlights: • We replicate Nunn's (2007) results. • We find heterogeneity of the effect of contact enforcement on exports. • For natural resource industries, we find the opposite of what is found in this paper. • There are implications in terms of the natural resource and economic development. - Abstract: In his seminal paper, Nunn (2007) finds that countries with good contract enforcement have a comparative advantage and, therefore, specialize in exporting goods for which relationship-specific investments are most important. We argue that this result cannot be extrapolated to all industries: there is substantial heterogeneity regarding the effect of contract enforcement on exports. In particular, we empirically demonstrate that there is a disconnection between judicial quality and exporting in relationship-specific natural resource related industries. Due to the lack of input factor mobility, for such industries, the quality of contract enforcement cannot explain the pattern of trade, but rather other factors that are widely discussed in the literature. We discuss some relevant implications of this disconnection between judicial quality and relationship-specific industries in terms of the natural resource curse and the impact of natural resources trade on economic development.