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[en] Cell proliferation is a biological process in which chromosomes replicate in one cell and equally divide into two daughter cells. Our previous findings suggested that Odd-skipped related 2 (Osr2) plays an important role in cellular quiescence and proliferation under epigenetic regulation. However, the mechanism used by Osr2 to establish and maintain proliferation is unknown. To examine the functional role of Osr2 in cell proliferation, we analyzed its downstream target genes using microarray analysis following adenovirus-induced overexpression of Osr2 as well as knockdown with Osr2 siRNA, which showed that Osr2 regulates a multitude of genes involved in proliferation and the cell cycle, as well as development. Additional proliferation assays also indicated that Osr2 likely functions to elicit cell proliferation. Together, these results suggest that Osr2 plays important roles in proliferation and development.
[en] Bcl3 is a member of the IκB family that regulates genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Recent reports indicated that Bcl3 is overexpressed in HTLV-1-infected T cells via Tax-mediated transactivation, and acts as a negative regulator of viral transcription. However, the role of Bcl3 in cellular signal transduction and the growth of HTLV-1-infected T cells have not been reported. In this study, we showed that the knockdown of Bcl3 by short hairpin RNA inhibited the growth of HTLV-1-infected T cells. Although phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor reduced Bcl3 expression, inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), an effector kinase of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, restored Bcl3 expression in Tax-negative but not in Tax-positive T cells. Our results indicate that the overexpression of Bcl3 in HTLV-1-infected T cells is regulated not only by transcriptional but also by post-transcriptional mechanisms, and is involved in overgrowth of HTLV-1-infected T cells.
[en] Development of effective vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses is a global public health priority. Considering the difficulty in predicting HPAI H5N1 pandemic strains, one strategy used in their design includes the development of formulations with the capacity of eliciting broad cross-protective immunity against multiple viral antigens. To this end we constructed a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus-based avian influenza virus vaccine (rAdv-AI) expressing the codon-optimized M2eX-HA-hCD40L and the M1-M2 fusion genes from HPAI H5N1 human isolate. Although there were no significant differences in the systemic immune responses observed between the intramuscular prime-intramuscular boost regimen (IM/IM) and the intranasal prime-intramuscular boost regimen (IN/IM), IN/IM induced more potent CD8+ T cell and antibody responses at mucosal sites than the IM/IM vaccination, resulting in more effective protection against lethal H5N2 avian influenza (AI) virus challenge. These findings suggest that the strategies used to induce multi-antigen-targeted mucosal immunity, such as IN/IM delivery of rAdv-AI, may be a promising approach for developing broad protective vaccines that may be more effective against the new HPAI pandemic strains.
[en] Murine leukemia virus (MLV) capsid particles can be efficiently pseudotyped with a variant of the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) containing the surface glycoprotein gp120-SU and a carboxyl-terminally truncated transmembrane (TM) protein, with only seven cytoplasmic amino acids. MLV/HIV pseudotyped vector particles acquire the natural host tropism of HIV-1 and their entry is dependent on the presence of CD4 and an appropriate co-receptor on the surface of the target cell. We describe here the construction of chimeric MLV/HIV proviruses containing the truncated HIV envelope gene. The MLV/HIV provirus was generated by direct replacement of the MLV envelope gene with HIV Env coding sequences either with or without the additional inclusion of the woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE). Chimeric MLV/HIV particles could be generated from transfected 293T cells and were able to infect CD4/CXCR4-positive target cells. However, the second round of infection of target cells was severely impaired, despite the fact that the WPRE element enhanced the amount of viral mRNA detected. Viral particles released from infected cells showed reduced HIV Env incorporation, indicating that additional factors required for efficient replication of MLV/HIV pseudotyped viruses are missing
[en] As bioterrorism is emerging as a national threat, it is urgent to develop a new generation of anthrax vaccines that can be rapidly produced and mass administered in an emergency setting. We have demonstrated that protective immunity against anthrax spores could be elicited in mice by intranasal administration of a non-replicating human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-derived vector encoding Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in a single-dose regimen. The potency of an Ad5 vector encoding PA was remarkably enhanced by codon optimization of the PA gene to match the tRNA pool found in human cells. This nasal vaccine can be mass-administered by non-medical personnel during a bioterrorist attack. In addition, replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free Ad5-vectored anthrax vaccines can be mass produced in PER.C6 cells in serum-free wave bioreactors and purified by column chromatography to meet a surge in demand. The non-replicating nature of this new generation of anthrax vaccine ensures an excellent safety profile for vaccines and the environment.(author)
[en] We identified a bifunctional regulatory element located between nt 374 and 431 upstream of TATA box of porcine adenovirus (PAV) 3 E1A promoter. Deletion of the element dramatically reduced the steady-state level of E1A mRNA, but increased that of E1B, which lies immediately downstream of E1A. The mutant virus displayed defective replication at early times of infection, but replicated nearly as efficiently as wild-type PAV-3 at late times of infection. This defect was complemented with coinfecting wild-type virus in a mixed infection. The results indicated that the upstream activation sequences (UAS) of E1A overlap the upstream repression sequences (URS) of E1B, although both transcription units are transcribed from different promoters
[en] Approximately 80 % of mesothelioma specimens have the wild-type p53 gene, whereas they contain homozygous deletions in the INK4A/ARF locus that encodes p14"A"R"F and the 16"I"N"K"4"A genes. Consequently, the majority of mesothelioma is defective of the p53 pathways. We examined whether zoledronic acid (ZOL), a third generation bisphosphonate, and adenoviruses with a deletion of the E1B-55kD gene (Ad-delE1B55), which augments p53 levels in the infected tumors, could produce combinatory anti-tumor effects on human mesothelioma cells bearing the wild-type p53 gene. Cytotoxicity of ZOL and Ad-delE1B55 was assessed with a WST assay. Cell cycle changes were tested with flow cytometry. Expression levels of relevant molecules were examined with western blot analysis to investigate a possible mechanism of cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the expressions of Ad receptors on target cells and infectivity were estimated with flow cytometry. Viral replication was assayed with the tissue culture infection dose method. A combinatory use of ZOL and Ad-delE1B55 suppressed cell growth and increased sub-G1 or S-phase populations compared with a single agent, depending on cells tested. The combinatory treatment up-regulated p53 levels and subsequently enhanced the cleavage of caspase-3, 8, 9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, but expression of molecules involved in autophagy pathways were inconsistent. ZOL-treated cells also increased Ad infectivity with a dose-dependent manner and augmented Ad replication although the expression levels of integrin molecules, one of the Ad receptors, were down-regulated. These findings indicated that ZOL and Ad-delE1B55 achieved combinatory anti-tumor effects through augmented apoptotic pathways or increased viral replication. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2483-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users
[en] A total of 242 genes were shown to be differentially expressed between haplotypically matched tumorigenic adenovirus 12 (Ad12) and nontumorigenic Ad5-transformed cells using a microarray containing 8734 cDNAs. Eighty-seven of the differentially expressed genes have known roles that include signal transduction, cell growth and proliferation, transcription regulation, protease, and immune functions. The remaining differentially expressed genes are represented by EST cDNAs which have functions that are either completely unknown or proposed, based on sequence similarity to known genes. A subset of 22 differentially expressed genes from the microarray was further examined by Northern blot analyses to verify the identification of new genes associated with Ad12 tumorigenesis. Growth factor receptor binding protein 10 (Grb10) and protease nexin 1 (PN-1) were overexpressed in all of the tumorigenic Ad12-transformed cells examined, whereas expression of these genes was negligible in all of the nontumorigenic Ad5-transformed cells. By contrast, other genes including B cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) were shown to be significantly up-regulated in Ad5-transformed cells as compared to Ad12-transformed cells
[en] The dependence of retroviral replication on cell proliferation was described as early as 1958, although different classes of retroviruses are able to infect non-dividing cells with different efficiencies. For example, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other lentiviruses infect most non-dividing cells nearly as well as dividing cells, while the gammaretroviruses such as the murine leukemia virus (MLV) cannot infect non-dividing cells, and other retroviruses have intermediate phenotypes. One exception to the ability of HIV to infect non-dividing cells involves resting CD4+ T cells in vitro where there are multiple restrictions. However, recent data show that there is massive infection of non-activated CD4+ T cell during acute infection which suggests that the situation is different in vivo. Finally, much work trying to explain the difference between HIV and MLV in non-dividing cells has focused on describing the ability of HIV to enter the nucleus during interphase. However, we suggest that events in the viral lifecycle other than nuclear import may be more important in determining the ability of a given retrovirus to infect non-dividing cells
[en] Extra- and intracellular viruses in the biosphere outnumber their cellular hosts by at least one order of magnitude. How is this enormous domain of viruses organized? Sampling of the virosphere has been scarce and focused on viruses infecting humans, cultivated plants, and animals as well as those infecting well-studied bacteria. It has been relatively easy to cluster closely related viruses based on their genome sequences. However, it has been impossible to establish long-range evolutionary relationships as sequence homology diminishes. Recent advances in the evaluation of virus architecture by high-resolution structural analysis and elucidation of viral functions have allowed new opportunities for establishment of possible long-range phylogenic relationships--virus lineages. Here, we use a genomic approach to investigate a proposed virus lineage formed by bacteriophage PRD1, infecting gram-negative bacteria, and human adenovirus. The new member of this proposed lineage, bacteriophage Bam35, is morphologically indistinguishable from PRD1. It infects gram-positive hosts that evolutionarily separated from gram-negative bacteria more than one billion years ago. For example, it can be inferred from structural analysis of the coat protein sequence that the fold is very similar to that of PRD1. This and other observations made here support the idea that a common early ancestor for Bam35, PRD1, and adenoviruses existed