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[en] In a typical solar water heating system, cold water is replenished into the storage tank as soon as the load is served. However, it is possible to determine the water replenishment profile (i.e., the quantity of the cold makeup water to be supplied to the storage tank over a day) that optimizes the overall system. In this paper, the effect of water replenishment on the system sizing is studied and a novel strategy for water replenishment is proposed to improve the design and performance of solar water heating systems. Based on an analytical technique, an approximate water replenishment profile is proposed to size a solar water heating system near-optimally. The problem is analyzed using a methodology called design space approach. Design space of a solar water heating system identifies all possible and feasible designs on a collector area vs. storage volume diagram. For illustration of the proposed methodology, an example problem is solved. It is observed that the annualized system cost can be reduced by 13.7%. For the cost-optimal system configuration, a reduction of 12.7% in the collector area and 10.2% reduction in the storage volume are observed. The proposed methodology is particularly important and advantageous for large commercial and industrial solar water heating systems
[en] The results of numerical research on the determination of the temperature value of the internal surface of the heat-removing channel (HRC) walls of the light-absorbing heat-exchange panels (LAHPs) with the tubeon- sheet and thin-parallelepiped form of flat-plate solar water-heating collectors (FPSWHCs) are presented. The research method is based on compilation of the system of the balance equations for the light-absorbing plate (LAP) and HRCs of the LAHPs of the studied types and their designs with respect to the desired parameter. A practical example of calculation of the determination of the temperature value of the internal surface of the HRC wall of the tube-on-sheet LAHP, where the results of experimental research on the determination of the specific thermal efficiency of the mean-quality FPSWHC in full-scale terms, as well as laboratory and numerical research on determination of the optical and thermotechnical indicators of the copper tube-on-sheet LAHP.
[en] Water reuse involves the concept of the exploitation of a previously used water, for a new, beneficial purpose. Actually, in Uruguay, thermal water is just utilised for balneological purposes, in this paper is proposed the water reuse taking the excess of used swimming pool water, and using it for heating and greenhouse irrigation, and australian lobster breeding. An important aspect of sustainable thermal water management is the protection of the exploted thermal water resources, so water reuse plays an important role in water resource, and ecosystem management, because it reduces the volume discharged and also reduces the risk of thermal pollution
[es]El reuso del agua involucra el concepto de explotacion de un agua usada previamente, para un nuevo y benefico proposito. En la actualidad, en Uruguay, el agua termal es solamente utilizada para fines balneologicos; en este trabajo se propone el reuso del agua termal, tomando el exceso de agua usada en las piscinas, para fines de riego y calefaccion de invernaculos y para la cria de langostas australianas. Un aspecto importante de la gestion sustentable del agua termal es la proteccion de su explotacion, por lo tanto el reuso juega un papel muy importante en la gestion del recurso hidrico y de los ecosistemas, ya que reduce el volumen descargado al sistema y tambien el riesgo de contaminacion termal
[en] This article reports on the UN Environment Programme's (UNEP's) work in supporting the banking and financing sector by creating clean energy finance markets in developing countries. Details are given of the shifting of cash markets to credit, financing solar home systems in India, solar thermal lending in Tunisia, the financing of hotel based solar water heating in Morocco, and the Green Village Credit initiatives in the Yunnan province of China. The importance of providing banks with information needed to gain awareness and experience of renewable energy systems is stressed. The fundamentals of a bank engagement programme, financial catalysts, structuring market oriented approaches, and linking bank lending to policy making are discussed along with the need to shift to credit enhancements to help banks set up their first loan portfolios
[en] Solar plants are increasingly used not only for hot tap water heating but also for the assistance of space heating. These plants produce much more energy in summer than needed, which often results in stagnation. Because of stagnation-temperatures of todays selective collectors up to 200 deg. C, the collector fluid evaporates. In several plants a high noise level and a vibration of the plant during this evaporation phase is reported. This is due to the occurrence of water hammers in the system, when liquid collector fluid passes areas where the fluid was already evaporated and superheated. The remaining vapor bubbles deflate rapidly and the liquid phases collide with high velocity, which results in a rapid pressure increase. This paper describes the theory of condensate-induced water hammers and conditions of solar plants, under which this can happen. A simulation model for the evaporation phase of the collector is presented to give a deeper understanding about the influences of solar radiation, the size of the tubing, and the size of the expansion device on the process of the evaporation. Three hydraulic layouts of the collector area are discussed for there possibilities producing water hammers. (au)
[en] The Caldes de Boí geothermal waters show important differences in pH (6.5–9.6) and temperature (15.9ºC–52ºC) despite they have a common origin and a very simple circuit at depth (4km below the recharge area level). Thes differences are the result of secondary processes such as conductive cooling, mixing with colder shallower waters, and input of external CO2, which affect each spring to a different extent in the terminal part of the thermal circuit. In this paper, the secondary processes that control the geochemical evolution of this system have been addressed using a geochemical dataset spanning over 20 years and combining different approaches: classical geochemical calculations and geochemical modelling. Mixing between a cold and a thermal end-member, cooling and CO2 exchange are the processes affecting the spring waters with different intensity over time. These differences in the intensity of the secondary processes could be controlled by the effect of climate and indirectly by the geomorphological and hydrogeological setting of the different springs. Infiltration recharging the shallow aquifer is dominant during the rainy seasons and the extent of the mixing process is greater, at least in some springs.Moreover, significant rainfall can produce a decrease in the ground temperature favouring the conductive cooling. Finally, the geomorphological settings of the springs determine the thickness and the hydraulic properties of the saturated layer below them and, therefore, they affect the extent of the mixing process between the deep thermal waters and the shallower cold waters. The understanding of the compositional changes in the thermal waters and the main factors that could affect them is a key issue to plan the future management of the geothermal resources of the Caldes de Boí system. Here, we propose to use a simple methodology to assess the effect of those factors, which could affect the quality of the thermal waters for balneotherapy at long-term scale. Furthermore, the methodology used in this study can be applied to other geothermal systems.
[en] It has been proposed to introduce a new parameter into the practice of the heat calculation and testing of the flat-plate solar water-heating collectors (FSWHCs)—the coefficient of heat transfer from the light-absorbing panel (LAP) to the heat transfer fluid in its internal heat-exchange channels (HECs) reduced to the unit area of the frontal surface of their cases. The mechanism of the formation of this parameter is studied, the design expression is derived, and a practical example of the calculation to define its value is performed. The structures of the flowing LAPs of a sheet-piped thin parallelepiped form are selected as the objects of the investigation. The reliability of the results of the investigations is proved by comparing the values of the specific (relative to the area unit of the frontal surface of the case) heating efficiency of the collector obtained based on the various formulas.
[en] Solar thermal technologies offer the potential to meet a substantial share of residential water and space heating needs in the EU, but current levels of adoption are low. This paper uses data from a large sample of German households to assess the effects of geographic, residence, and household characteristics on the adoption of solar thermal water and space heating technologies. In addition, the impact of solar thermal technology adoption on household energy expenditures is estimated after controlling for observed household heterogeneity in geographic, residential, and household characteristics. While evidence is found of moderate household energy expenditure savings from combined solar water and space heating systems, the findings generally confirm that low in-home energy cost savings and fixed housing stocks limit the diffusion of residential solar thermal technologies. Little evidence is found of differential adoption by distinct socio-economic groups.
[en] The solar thermal industry needs to be more innovative, according to the author. Systems could be easier to install, more intelligent, more user-friendly, cheaper - and better looking. (author)
[en] Many modern building are designed for air-conditioning and the amount of electrical energy required for providing air-conditioning can be very significant especially in the tropics. Conservation of energy is major concern to improve the overall efficiency of the system. Integration is energy storage with the conventional system gives a lot of potential for energy saving and long-term economics. Thermal energy storage systems can improve energy management and help in matching supply and demand patterns. In the present work, a detailed study has been done on the existing thermal energy storage system used in the air-conditioning system in Tidel Park, Chennai. The present study focuses on the cool energy storage system. The modes of operation and advantages of such a system for energy management are highlighted. The reason for the adoption of combined storage system and the size of the storage medium in the air-conditioning plant are analyzed. The possibility of using this concept in other cooling and heating applications, such as storage type solar water heating system, has been explored