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[en] In the afternoon of October 2, 2015, Hurricane Joaquin made landfall on San Salvador Island, the easternmost island in the Bahamian Archipelago. In this study, post-storm surveys that estimated storm surge height and assessed structural damage on the island were evaluated within the context of Joaquin’s meteorological characteristics. The findings from Hurricane Joaquin were then compared to impacts from other notable storms that affected San Salvador in recent decades, namely Hurricane Lili (1996), Hurricane Floyd (1999), and Hurricane Frances (2004). Hurricane Joaquin’s trajectory likely contributed to the extent and distribution of storm surge and damage on San Salvador. Near its peak strength, Joaquin approached the island from the south, which is a climatologically unusual track. Lili also approached San Salvador from the south and exhibited similar patterns of storm surge, overwash, and vegetation disturbance, particularly along the southern end of the island. During Joaquin’s passage, winds of at least tropical storm-force likely impacted San Salvador for 48 consecutive hours, which is twice the duration of such winds associated with the other three hurricanes. Storm surge recorded from Joaquin was more evenly distributed across the island, whereas surge recorded from Floyd and Frances was more concentrated on the western and eastern sides of the island, respectively. While the average surge height on the island was highest from Frances, the percentage of structures with heavy damage was much higher from Joaquin, which may be due to the extended duration of strong winds.
[en] This law establishes the general purposes and principles pursued by the Cuban state in the peaceful use of nuclear energy and measures to safeguard the health of the workers occupationally exposed and of the population; and to protect property and the environment. To these ends, it authorizes state control all occupations in which radioactive substances or other sources of ionizing radiation are present. This control is carried out through the regulation itself and through the mechanism of the approval and granting of licenses, and supervision and registration. (H.D.N.)
[en] It is presented a qualitative X-ray elemental fluorescence and diffraction analysis of the low-nickel portion (deands) of Cuban lateritic ores from Moa and Nicaro, the tailings of the Cuba nickel plant Comandante Pedro Soto Alba (in Moa) and its magnetic concentrated fractions (results of enrichment test in magnetizing roasting and wet magnetic separation). In all samples as main phase hematite (α-Fe2O3) is observed. In all deands samples there were also high concentrations of goethite (α-FeOOH) and aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3). In the Nicaro deands, in addition to name above phases, a modification of delta-iron hydroxide, with Ni and/or Co substitutions in the forms delta-(Fesub(0,67)Nisub(0,33))OOH, delta-(Fesub(0,67)Cosub(0,33))OOH or delta-(Fesub(0,67)Nisub(x)Cosub(0,33-x))OOH seems possible. In Moa tailings besides the hematite, the more abundant phases are a basic hydrated aluminium sulphate and gypsum. The magnetic enriched fractions are practically by a spinel of the maghemite type, and chromium seems to be included into the spinel lattice. (author)
[en] The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems
[en] Trends in extreme temperature and rainfall were analyzed for two Caribbean islands in close proximity: Tobago (Crown Point) and Trinidad (Piarco) for the most recent period 1985–2015 using daily data. Most annual extreme temperature indices at Crown Point show no significant warming. However, warming at Crown Point manifests during the wet season and strongly in September. In contrast, most extreme temperature indices at Piarco show significant warming trends on annual and seasonal scales as well as for most months. Extreme precipitation indices show few trends. For Crown Point, trends indicate an increase in annual precipitation totals and extremely wet days were observed, whereas no significant trends in annual indices were found for Piarco. The greatest 5-day rainfall amounts were found to increase during the dry season at both sites. When compared to previous regional studies, this specific territory approach highlights that most indices with no significant regional trends also do not show trends at the local scale. Furthermore, differences in trends between these two nearby sites, 80 km apart, indicate that there is a spatial variation in warming trends.
[en] Using a neo-classical aggregate production model where capital, labour, technology, and energy are treated as separate inputs, this paper tests for the existence and direction of causality between output growth and electrical energy use in Barbados, analysed as a whole and in sectors respectively. Results indicate the presence of a long-run relationship between growth and electricity consumption; specifically we find that the non-residential sector is a key driver of growth. In addition, the evidence reveals a bidirectional causal relationship between electrical energy consumption and real GDP in the long run, but only a unidirectional causal relationship from energy to output in the short run. Forecasts indicate increasing consumption of electrical energy, particularly by the residential sector. We suggest that plans by the Government to liberalise the sector should encourage efficiency and innovation in production and distribution which should result in lower prices, as independent suppliers compete to maintain their market shares. Changes in the regulatory environment will also be necessary if such plans materialise. Policymakers will need to pay greater attention to the expected increase in the rate of consumption by the residential sector, as this will help to reduce the imports of oil and depletion of scarce foreign exchange resources by a sector that does not spur economic growth. An increase in energy capacity should be encouraged as contingency planning in the event of a technical or political disruption to fuel imports will be critical, notwithstanding the drive to use more renewable sources of energy. (author)
[en] The Nuclear-Research Submarine NR-1 was used to study morphoplogy, sediment, and sediment-water interactions off the northwest coast of Puerto Rico. New detailed bathymetry from the surface-support ship, USS Portland, shows several submarine canyons in the area, some of them unreported previously. The north coast canyons, Arecibo, Tiberones and Quebradillas, are primarily erosional features although no recent turbidity-current evidence is seen. The canyons are presently filling with river-transported sediments. (orig./ME)
[en] The Nuclear Engineering Division is engaged in both teaching and research. Staff members teach both graduate and undergraduate courses at the UPR Mayaguez Campus and direct the thesis work of nuclear engineering students. They do research on their own projects and assist the staff of other PRNC divisions as the need arises. The scientists on the Division's staff all hold joint appointments at PRNC and UPR, and they make up the faculty of the UPR Nuclear Engineering Department, the Head of the PRNC Division being also the Chairman of the UPR Department. The Division provides the classrooms, offices, laboratories and equipment, and most of the administrative personnel required for the education and training of the graduate students at the UPR Nuclear Engineering Department
[en] Amoco Trinidad Oil Company produces 60,000 bbl/d of oil from the Trinidadian offshore. The oil is pipelined ashore where it is processed and returned offshore to a buoy mooring for transport up Trinidad's east coast. Amoco Trinidad has developed comprehensive oil spill contingency plans, starting from computer models of spill scenarios. The models used initially assumed that the oils would emulsify quickly and the spills would become highly viscous and persistent, reaching the shoreline in 15-24 h. Such behavior would render ineffective the use of dispersants as a spill countermeasure. Studies showed a poor potential capability of physical recovery systems for spills off the Trinidad east coast due to high sea states, strong winds, and other factors. These results led to questioning of the spill model's assumptions, and laboratory tests were conducted to study the actual behavior of the crude oils. It was found that the oil was difficult to emulsify and highly prone to breakup and dispersion. These surprising results were explained by the presence of surfactants added during processing. A revised modelling exercise showed that if the surfactants stay with the oil, spills up to 100,000 bbl will dissipate in 15 h or less at average wind conditions. To guard against the possibility that the surfactants may not stay with the spilled oil, and to help accelerate dispersion of oil spills, Amoco Trinidad has developed a dispersant-use capacity for its spill contingency plan. It is suggested that additives normally added to crude oils during production and processing in other areas may also be providing spill cleanup benefits similar to those found in the Trinidad case. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs
[en] This is a study of Cuba's plan for assimilating nuclear energy. It explains that over a period of approximately 15 years, more than 25% of the country's electricity production will be transferred to nuclear power plants and explains the need for and importance of this task. The paper makes a comparative analysis between the Third World countries that are carrying out nuclear programs and Cuba, highlighting Cuba's creation of important bases for infrastructure, education and scientific and technical potential, and points out the fact that as a socialist country Cuba is able to use its resources rationally to promote development and maintain broad, beneficial international cooperation. Cuba's general conditions for facing this task are referred to and the various steps that have been taken since the triumph of the Cuban Revolution are explained, with emphasis on the basic directions in which the country's efforts have been concentrated since 1980, including, concretely: nuclear energy, fundamental and applied research; the application of nuclear technology to medicine, the economy and other branches; the creation of radiological protection measures and systems; the education and training of personnel; international relations and the encouragement of cooperation plans. The crisis of the capitalist energy scheme is raised as well as the Third World's inability to assimilate nuclear energy. The new strategy of the industrialized countries is analyzed. It also raises the struggle and perspectives for the new technologies, as well as the ideological struggle with regard to the Cuban nuclear program. (B.R.D.)