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[en] This paper gives an overview of recent developments concerning pellet combustion technologies in Austria. It covers basic information about the Austrian pellet market and market developments in recent years as well as about national framework conditions in Austria with regard to standards for Pellets, pellet furnaces and emission limits. A detailed overview is given of the state-of-the-art of Austrian pellet boiler technology, which is - from a technological point of view - probably the best developed market world-wide. Innovations, which have recently been developed and introduced into the market, are described. The most important innovations are new furnace developments based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations, flue gas condensation systems for small-scale pellet boilers and multi-fuel concepts, where e.g. firewood and Pellets can be utilised in one boiler. Moreover, emissions from pellet furnaces are discussed and evaluated based on test stand and field measurements. In this respect, a focus is put on fine particulate emissions from pellet boilers. Finally, future developments based on ongoing research projects are described and discussed. The ongoing R and D activities focus on the further reduction of fine particulate emissions by primary and secondary measures, the utilisation of herbaceous biomass fuels and small or micro-scale CHP systems
[en] This article describes the wood pellets technology that is increasingly being used as a replacement for oil, gas and electrical heating systems. The wood pellets themselves and their manufacture are described in detail. The operation of pellets-fired central heating systems is described, including the technologies used for storage and fuel feeding. The range of central heating boilers and ovens available is discussed and questions of integration of the boilers in heating systems is looked at. Future developments in the market for pellets-fired systems are discussed. The article is complemented by an interview with the author
[en] Despite considerable advances in firing technology, harmful particulate matter is produced when wood is combusted. Electrostatic precipitators, however, filter up to 90 per cent of particulate emissions from biomass boilers. These therefore enable wood burners to use a wider range of fuel and still meet the tightened requirements of Germany's 1st Ordinance on the Implementation of the Federal Immission Control Act. The major advantage: Both new and old heating plants can benefit from the new system.
[en] Recent Danish as well as international studies have shown that wood burning may lead to increased levels air pollution levels of particles and different types of organic compounds in the vicinity of the sources. The air pollution constitutes a health risk for the local population but this risk is poorly quantified. Furthermore, the number of available studies is relatively limited with regard to pollutant emissions and concentrations related to wood burning. This report summarizes a number of studies which have the aim of contributing to the current understanding of the air pollution problem related to the use of wood stoves and boilers. The investigations include studies of emissions and resulting outdoor pollutant levels in two villages. Furthermore investigations of indoor-outdoor levels have been performed in two single-family detached houses. (au)
[en] In many communities, wood burning for residential heat during the winter is implicated in the release of particles of 2.5 micrometers in diameter or less (PM2.5). PM2.5 are air pollutants can be inhaled and enter deep into the lungs. These air pollutants contribute strongly to increases in illness and death rates. PM2.5 air pollution resulting from wood burning for residential heat can be mitigated with the use of appropriate burning techniques and of newer and cleaner equipments. According to the Ministry of Environment, approximately 9,000 older before 1994 wood burning appliances can still be found in the Nanaimo area. These appliances were not made to mitigate the smoke emissions. In British Columbia, the Environmental Management Act at the provincial level stipulates that these older designs cannot be sold any more in the wholesale or retail market. Overall people of Nanaimo enjoy good air quality but some areas present a relatively higher number of woodstoves in use and/or the accumulation of wood smoke is induced by the topography. A study aiming to identify the potential hotspots in Nanaimo using a mobile nephelometer and related GPS device has been performed. This analysis will give information on the context and support the City of Nanaimo with the development of a woodstove exchange program. 4 refs., 2 tabs.
[en] In the project "Scientific-methodological foundations of inventory improvement 2016/2017", basics for calculation and measurement of black carbon emissions were documented in a sub-report. Emission reporting on black carbon becomes more transparent and stakeholders involved in the assessment of carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere are supported. Therefore, results from measurements have been systematized: according to certain properties (e.g., blackness or chemical stability) and definitions of the measured quantities. Thus, it is documented which measurements are not comparable, and the distinction for relevant emission sources was worked out. The goal of greater transparency was achieved in the project and can now be introduced into the international discussion.
[de]Im Projekt "Wissenschaftlich-methodische Grundlagen der Inventarverbesserung 2016/2017" wurden in einem Teilbericht Grundlagen zur Berechnung und Messung von Black Carbon Emissionen dokumentiert. Die Emissionsberichterstattung über Black Carbon wird transparenter und Akteure, die sich mit der Bewertung von kohlenstoffhaltigen Partikeln in der Atmosphäre befassen, werden unterstützt. Deshalb wurden Ergebnisse aus Messungen systematisiert: nach bestimmten Eigenschaften (z. B. Schwärze oder chemische Stabilität) und Definitionen der Messgrößen. Somit ist dokumentiert, welche Messungen nicht vergleichbar sind, wobei die Unterscheidung für relevante Emissionsquellen herausgearbeitet wurde. Das Ziel größerer Transparenz konnte im Projekt erreicht und kann nun in die internationale Diskussion eingebracht werden.
[en] We have investigated the use of domestic wood burning for wood stoves and open fireplaces. The results from a closer examination of existing national energy statistics for residential heating has enabled a division of the average consumption of firewood for each house by the category 'fireplace for open fire' and 'tiled stove/heating stove/fireplace for wood'. The estimation of emissions can therefore be improved by differentiating emission factors for different wood stoves and open fireplaces. Today, only one emission factor is used. An insight into general firing procedures, wood storage routines etc. was investigated using a questionnaire for the Teleborg area of the city Vaexjoe. The results of this study provide a foundation for further work, which will subsequently enable improvements for emission inventories on small-scale biomass combustion from household appliances
[en] This report deals especially on the dioxines and furans bond to the combustion of wood in industrial furnaces and domestic furnaces. It aims to define the environmental strategy which would allow the combustion of wood residues to produce energy. The first part recalls general aspects concerning the wood. The six other parts presents the wood resources and wastes, the additive used, the combustion and the different factors of combustion and finally the pollutants emissions. (A.L.B.)
[en] These three reports present the situation of wood-based heat networks in France, their general characteristics (installed powers, size of concerned municipalities, distribution, implementation context, supplied buildings, management modes), technical characteristics of wood-based furnaces (size, network temperature, thermal density, energy mix, smokes and ashes). They analyse the economy of wood-based heat network (investments, heat sale price, subsidies), analyse wood supply (fuel type, provider, purchase contract revision, storage capacity), evoke difficulties during the project elaboration and during operation and noticed by returns on experience, and analyse the development of these networks (segmentation, strategies).
[en] Simulations have been carried out for typical conditions of wood-fired small-scale combustion. The simulations indicate that experimentally observed particle number concentrations are not high enough for coagulation to be the dominant phenomenon in particle formation. The enhancement of coagulation due to the shape of the particles is insufficient to account for the low number concentrations. Overall, the assumption of particle formation being limited by the nucleation-condensation dynamics of K2SO4 seems to provide credible simulation results. However, the capability to model real-word systems is far from perfect. Figure 1 shows the prediction of the dependence of particle number concentration on the extent of K release. The alkali content released in the vapour phase was assumed to be 10 ppm Cl; 50 ppm S and the release of K was varied. The simulations predict slightly higher number concentrations at lower release. Various measurements reported in the literature do not show a consistent trend