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[en] Samples of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) fraction of airborne particulate were collected on weekly basis during the period from May 2012 to July 2014 at Bangi, Selangor. The samples were collected using a Gent Stacked Filter Sampler in two fractions of < 2.5 μm and 2.5 - 10 μm sizes. This research paper aims at establishing the concentration level of PM2.5, PM10-2.5 and PM10 at Bangi area and investigates their possible sources and contribution to the ambient aerosol of the area. The samples were analyzed for their elemental composition and black carbon content by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Smoke Stain Reflectometer, respectively. The average for PM2.5, PM10-2.5 and PM10 ranged from 1.8 μg/ m3 to 78.0 μg/ m3, 9.6 μg/ m3 to 76.8 μg/ m3 and 12 μg/ m3 to 134 μg/ m3, respectively. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) technique was also applied to fine and coarse data set in order to identify the possible sources of particulate matter (PM) and their contribution to the ambient particulate matter concentrations in the area. The best solution was found to be five factors for both elemental compositions of fine and coarse PM, respectively. The PMF results show that motor vehicles and secondary sulphate contribute about 40.3 % and 33.0 % of the fine mass respectively followed by soil, sea salt and smoke/ biomass burning with the average contribution of 10.5 %, 10.3 % and 6.4 %, respectively. In case of coarse particles the PMF results show that a large fraction of about more than 50 % of the coarse mass comes from motor vehicle. Soil dust including road dust and soil construction contribute about 32.5 % of the coarse mass whilst the smoke/ biomass burning factor contributes about 6.7 % of the coarse mass. (author)
[en] It is necessary to discriminate and determine unknown radionuclide in nuclear safeguard. The basic principle of γ spectrometry for unknown radionuclide discrimination and measurement has been recommended. The main influence factors of radionuclide measurement have been discussed.The species and content (quantity) in a aluminium wafer have been authenticated. The sample has been determined in interval again, the results are consistent with theory calculation results. It validates that the method is reliable. (authors)
[en] Spectral data on early-type galaxies are analyzed for chemical abundance with an emphasis on obtaining detailed abundances for the elements O and Si in addition to C, N, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, and Ba. The abundance trends with velocity dispersion fit preconceptions based upon previous Mg conclusions, namely, that larger galaxies have a higher alpha element to iron peak ratio indicative of a higher ratio of Type II to Type Ia supernova products. The heaviest alpha elements, Ca and Ti, do not participate in this trend, although this fact does not necessarily alter the basic picture given the uncertainties in nucleosynthetic yields. Elements that likely have significant contributions from intermediate-mass stars, namely, C, N, and Ba, also gain ground relative to Fe in massive galaxies at a modest level, with the Ba conclusion uncertain from our data alone. After the velocity dispersion trend is subtracted, [M/H], [N/Fe], [Na/Fe], [Mg/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] probably have cosmic scatter, and no quantity can be shown to not have cosmic scatter.
[en] Soil carbon is the carbon held within the soil, primarily in association with its organic content. The total soil organic carbon study was determined in a plot at Bukit Jeriau forest in Bukit Fraser, Pahang, Malaysia. The aim of this study is to determine the changing of soil organic carbon between wet season and dry season. Soil organic carbon was fined out using titrimetric determination. The soil organic carbon content in wet season is 223.24 t/ ha while dry season is 217.90 t/ ha. The soil pH range in wet season is between 4.32 to 4.45 and in dry season in 3.95 to 4.08 which is considered acidic. Correlation analysis showed that soil organic carbon value is influenced by pH value and climate. Correlation analysis between clay and soil organic carbon with depth showed positively significant differences and clay are very much influenced soil organic carbon content. Correlation analysis between electrical conductivity and soil organic carbon content showed negative significantly difference on wet season and positively significant different in dry season. (author)
[en] Study presented the concentration distribution of Ra-226, Ra-228 and K-40 in sediment and water and its variation related to the physical parameters and suspended particles to find the dynamics of these radionuclides along the river. Also, the changing trend of radionuclides activity along the river will provide information of pollutants movement from terrestrial to estuary. (author)
[en] In this work, we model the biofilm growth at the microscale using a rectangular pore network model in 2D and a cubic network in 3D. For the 2D network, we study the effects of bioclogging on porosity and permeability when we change parameters like the number of nodes in the network, the network size, and the concentration of nutrients at the inlet. We use a 3D cubic network to study the influence of the number of nodes in the z direction on the biofilm growth and on upscalability. We show that the biofilm can grow uniformly or heterogeneously through the network. Using these results, we determine the conditions for upscalability of bioclogging for rectangular and cubic networks. If there is uniform biofilm growth, there is a unique relation between permeability and porosity, K ∼ ϕ2, this relation does not depend on the volume of the network, therefore the system is upscalable. However, if there is preferential biofilm growth, the porosity-permeability relation is not uniquely defined, hence upscalability is not possible. The Damköhler number is used to determine when upscalability is possible. If the Damköhler number is less than 101, the biofilm grows uniformly and therefore the system is upscalable. However, if the Damköhler number is greater than 103, the biofilm growth exhibits a deviation from uniform biofilm growth and heterogeneous growth is observed, therefore upscalability is not possible. There is a transition from uniform growth to preferential growth if the Damköhler number is between 101 and 103.