Results 1 - 10 of 3546
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[en] A simple one-pot synthesis of new ferrocene-containing 1,3-thiazinan-2-imines from 3-arylamino-1-ferrocenylpropan-1-ols and phenyl isothiocyanate has been developed. The key intermediate β-hydroxy thioureas were generated in situ using ultrasound irradiation and subsequent cyclization was achieved by the addition of acetic acid. The scope of the reaction towards various 3-arylamino-1-ferrocenylpropan-1-ols has been explored and the corresponding 3-aryl-6-ferrocenyl-N-phenyl-1,3-thiazinan-2-imines were obtained in moderate to high yields (52–90%).
[en] Several biofabrication methods are being investigated to produce scaffolds that can replicate the structure of the extracellular matrix. Direct-write, near-field electrospinning of polymer solutions and electrowriting of polymer melts are methods which combine fine fiber formation with computer-guided control. Research with such systems has focused primarily on synthetic polymers. To better understand the behavior of biopolymers used for direct-writing, this project investigated changes in fiber morphology, size, and variability caused by varying gelatin and acetic acid concentration, as well as process parameters such as needle gauge and height, stage speed, and interfiber spacing. Increasing gelatin concentration at a constant acetic acid concentration improved fiber morphology from large, planar structures to small, linear fibers with a median of 2.3 µm. Further varying the acetic acid concentration at a constant gelatin concentration did not alter fiber morphology and diameter throughout the range tested. Varying needle gauge and height further improved the median fiber diameter to below 2 µm and variability of the first and third quartiles to within ±1 µm of the median. Additional adjustment of stage speed did not impact the fiber morphology or diameter. Repeatable interfiber spacings down to 250 µm were shown to be capable with the system. In summary, this study illustrates the optimization of processing parameters for direct-writing of gelatin to produce fibers on the scale of collagen fibers. This system is thus capable of replicating the fibrous structure of musculoskeletal tissues with biologically relevant materials which will provide a durable platform for the analysis of single cell-fiber interactions to help better understand the impact scaffold materials and dimensions have on cell behavior. (paper)
[en] The potential of 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (4-hydroxy-TEMPO radical) as an oxidant with [bis(acetoxy)-iodo]benzene (BAIB) and acetic acid (CH_3COOH) as co-oxidants to convert 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) into 2,5-diformylfuran (2,5-DFF) was investigated. The effects of oxidant/acid dosages, choice of appropriate solvent, reaction temperature and time were determined to maximize the 2,5-DFF yield. Optimally, 66% 2,5-DFF yield was achieved in TEMPO/BAIB/CH_3COOH system at 30 .deg. C after 45min in ethyl acetate. The reaction system is environmentally benign (metal-free) and energy efficient (mild at short reaction period). With scarce reports on 2,5-DFF production, the developed system provides an alternative route for a better access and wider application of this important platform chemical
[en] 3-aminomethylalizarn-N-N diacetic acid chromogenic dye (AMADA) was used for the first time in uranium and thorium spectrophotometric estimation with accurate and sensitive result, their complexes having a maximum absorbance at 575 nm for U and at 510 nm for Th. This system allows uranium and thorium content to be calculated with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.16 µg L-1 and 0.14 µg L-1, respectively. The first-derivative spectra and EDTA were investigated to eliminate interference and provide selective estimation of uranium and thorium in presence of each other. This new spectrophotometric method was applied for the determination of U(VI) and Th(IV) in the standard reference materials (granite and Syenite) and some cataclastic rock samples with accurate results. (author)
[en] Mammalian apoptosis and yeast programmed cell death (PCD) share a variety of features including reactive oxygen species production, protease activity and a major role played by mitochondria. In view of this, and of the distinctive characteristics differentiating yeast and multicellular organism PCD, the mitochondrial contribution to cell death in the genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been intensively investigated. In this mini-review we report whether and how yeast mitochondrial function and proteins belonging to oxidative phosphorylation, protein trafficking into and out of mitochondria, and mitochondrial dynamics, play a role in PCD. Since in PCD many processes take place over time, emphasis will be placed on an experimental model based on acetic acid-induced PCD (AA-PCD) which has the unique feature of having been investigated as a function of time. As will be described there are at least two AA-PCD pathways each with a multifaceted role played by mitochondrial components, in particular by cytochrome c.
[en] A new and alternative method for the efficient synthesis of indanylacetic acid 2 has been developed. The methodology used RuCl(p-cymene)[(R,R)-TsDPEN] as the catalyst and formic acid-triethylamine as the hydrogen source at room temperature under solvent-free conditions, and the reactions have excellent chemoselectivity and good compatibility of substrates. Used our developed method as the starting step, gram scale synthesis of GR24 was achieved smoothly with an overall yield of 72%. All the results suggested that further development of such methodology may be of interest. Further work to establish the mechanistic reasons for selectivity and to further explore the synthetic scope of this mode of transfer hydrogenation is in progress. The synthetic SL analog, GR24 is a very potent germination stimulant, which is widely used in parasitic weed research to stimulate germination and as a standard for comparison of new germinating agents. Owing to the prevalence of GR24, its total synthesis constitutes a hot area of research. So far all known synthetic routes of GR24 used indanylacetic acid 2 as a key intermediate, for which very few methods of building compound 2 have been reported
[en] Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and long-term results of single-session 50% acetic acid sclerotherapy for the treatment of simple renal cysts, and to compare the therapeutic results of 5 and 20 min sclerosant dwell techniques. Methods. During the past 9 years, 50% acetic acid sclerotherapy was performed on 67 cysts in 66 patients. An acetic acid volume corresponding to a mean of 23% of the aspirated cyst volume was injected into the cysts. A 20 min dwell time with position changes was performed in 32 cysts (31 patients; group I) and 8% of volume for a 5 min dwell time in 35 cysts (35 patients; group II). Three- and 6-month sonographic or CT follow-up was performed for a minimum of 1 year. Complete regression was defined as no remaining cyst measurable on sonography with or without a scar at the renal cortex. Partial regression was defined as a decreased cyst volume compared with that before sclerotherapy. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the therapeutic results between the two groups. Results. For 67 simple renal cysts, complete regression on follow-up was observed in 21 of 32 cysts (66%; group I) and 22 of 35 cysts (63%; group II); the remaining 24 cysts all showed partial regression. The partial reduction rate of the cyst's volume was 97.4% (91.3-99.4%) in group I and 96.9% (90.8-99.5 %) in group II. There were no procedure-related major complications, and no statistically significant differences in the complete regression and partial volume reduction rates between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion. Fifty percent acetic acid is an effective and safe sclerosing agent for simple renal cysts. Fifty percent acetic acid sclerotherapy with a 5 min sclerosant dwell time, using a volume of about 10% of the aspirated volume, is sufficient for satisfactory results of simple renal cyst sclerotherapy