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[en] The spatial features of the aftershock sequences triggered by three moderate magnitude events with coda-duration magnitudes 4.1, 5.1 and 5.6, which occurred in Northeastern Italy and Western Slovenia, were investigated. The fractal dimension and the orientations of the planar features fitting the hypocentral data have been inferred. The spatial organization is articulated through two temporal phases. The first phase is characterized by the decreasing of the fractal dimension and by vertically oriented planes fitting the hypocentral foci. The second phase is marked by an increase of the fractal dimension and by the activation of different planes, with more widespread orientation. The aftershock temporal distribution is analysed with a model based on a static fatigue process. The process is favoured by the decrease of the overburden pressure, the sharp variations of the mechanical properties of the medium and the unclamping effect resulting from positive normal stress changes caused by the mainshock stress step.
[en] We study the behavior of U.S. markets both before and after U.S. Federal Open Market Commission meetings and show that the announcement of a U.S. Federal Reserve rate change causes a financial shock, where the dynamics after the announcement is described by an analog of the Omori earthquake law. We quantify the rate n(t) of aftershocks following an interest-rate change at time T and find power-law decay which scales as n(t-T)∼(t-T)-Ω, with Ω positive. Surprisingly, we find that the same law describes the rate n'(|t-T|) of 'preshocks' before the interest-rate change at time T. This study quantitatively relates the size of the market response to the news which caused the shock and uncovers the presence of quantifiable preshocks. We demonstrate that the news associated with interest-rate change is responsible for causing both the anticipation before the announcement and the surprise after the announcement. We estimate the magnitude of financial news using the relative difference between the U.S. Treasury Bill and the Federal Funds effective rate. Our results are consistent with the 'sign effect', in which 'bad news' has a larger impact than 'good news'. Furthermore, we observe significant volatility aftershocks, confirming a 'market under-reaction' that lasts at least one trading day.
[en] The main topic of this study is to characterize the seismic activity in the studied region by performing qualitative and quantitative analyses of several selected seismic sequences (seismic swarms and aftershock sequences). Clustering analysis of the selected seismic sequences, located in recent years in the Ibero-Maghrebian region, has been performed using the concept of fractal dimension. Analyses of the temporal variation of the fractal dimensions , and , as well as the spectral slope, have been also performed in order to characterize each analyzed sequence. The variation of the b-value parameter of the Gutenberg-Richter relationship with time has been derived using the windowing method, and a comparative analysis of the variation in time and space of the -value is assessed. Taking into account that b-value variations are often used in seismic hazard and earthquake forecasting studies, this type of work highlights the importance of fractal dimension research in seismic sequences. From our dataset, a positive correlation between b-value and the fractal dimension has been obtained, as shown in the following relations and
[en] 1988 Spitak Earthquake is obtained. It is shown that besides crust aftershocks, mantle aftershocks are also observed. Most of the Spitak Earthquake aftershocks are situated in the depth of 0-90 km, certain cases are observed with the depth of 150 km. The coordinates of the hypocenter of the main shock are northern latitude φ=40.867°, and eastern longitude λ=44.199°, estimated depth is H= 5.0 km
[en] The Kachchh rift basin is located on the western continental margin of India and has a history of experiencing large to moderate intraplate earthquakes with M ≥ 5. During the past two centuries, two large earthquakes of Mw 7.8 (1819) and Mw 7.7 (2001) have occurred in the Kachchh region, the latter with an epicenter near Bhuj. The aftershock activity of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake is still ongoing with migration of seismicity. Initially, epicenters migrated towards the east and northeast within the Kachchh region but, since 2007, it has also migrated to the south. The triggered faults are mostly within 100 km and some up to 200 km distance from the epicentral area of the mainshock. Most of these faults are trending in E-W direction, and some are transverse. It was noticed that some faults generate earthquakes down to the Moho depth whereas some faults show earthquake activity within the upper crustal volume. The Gedi Fault, situated about 50 km northeast of the 2001 mainshock epicenter, triggered the largest earthquake of Mw 5.6 in 2006. We have carried out detailed seismological studies to evaluate the seismic potential of the Gedi Fault. We have relocated 331 earthquakes by HypoDD to improve upon location errors. Further, the relocated events are used to estimate the b value, p value, and fractal correlation dimension Dc of the fault zone. The present study indicates that all the events along the Gedi Fault are shallow in nature, with focal depths less than 20 km. The estimated b value shows that the Gedi aftershock sequence could be classified as Mogi’s type 2 sequence, and the p value suggests a relatively slow decay of aftershocks. The fault plane solutions of some selected events of Mw > 3.5 are examined, and activeness of the Gedi Fault is assessed from the results of active fault studies as well as GPS and InSAR results. All these results are critically examined to evaluate the material properties and seismic potential of the Gedi Fault that may be useful for seismic hazard assessment in the region.
[en] We propose a method that employs the squared displacement integral (ID2) to estimate earthquake magnitudes in real time for use in earthquake early warning (EEW) systems. Moreover, using τc and Pd for comparison, we establish formulas for estimating the moment magnitudes of these three parameters based on the selected aftershocks (4.0 ≤ Ms ≤ 6.5) of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. In this comparison, the proposed ID2 method displays the highest accuracy. Furthermore, we investigate the applicability of the initial parameters to large earthquakes by estimating the magnitude of the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 mainshock using a 3-s time window. Although these three parameters all display problems with saturation, the proposed ID2 parameter is relatively accurate. The evolutionary estimation of ID2 as a function of the time window shows that the estimation equation established with ID2Ref determined from the first 8-s of P wave data can be directly applicable to predicate the magnitudes of 8.0. Therefore, the proposed ID2 parameter provides a robust estimator of earthquake moment magnitudes and can be used for EEW purposes.
[en] The Valais is the most seismically active region of Switzerland. Strong damaging events occurred in 1755, 1855, and 1946. Based on historical documents, we discuss two known damaging events in the sixteenth century: the 1524 Ardon and the 1584 Aigle earthquakes. For the 1524, a document describes damage in Ardon, Plan-Conthey, and Savièse, and a stone tablet at the new bell tower of the Ardon church confirms the reconstruction of the bell tower after the earthquake. Additionally, a significant construction activity in the Upper Valais churches during the second quarter of the sixteenth century is discussed that however cannot be clearly related to this event. The assessed moment magnitude Mw of the 1524 event is 5.8, with an error of about 0.5 units corresponding to one standard deviation. The epicenter is at 46.27 N, 7.27 E with a high uncertainty of about 50 km corresponding to one standard deviation. The assessed moment magnitude Mw of the 1584 main shock is 5.9, with an error of about 0.25 units corresponding to one standard deviation. The epicenter is at 46.33 N and 6.97 E with an uncertainty of about 25 km corresponding to one standard deviation. Exceptional movements in the Lake Geneva wreaked havoc along the shore of the Rhone delta. The large dimension of the induced damage can be explained by an expanded subaquatic slide with resultant tsunami and seiche in Lake Geneva. The strongest of the aftershocks occurred on March 14 with magnitude 5.4 and triggered a destructive landslide covering the villages Corbeyrier and Yvorne, VD.
[en] An earthquake with the moment magnitude Mw = 5.8 occurred in the middle part of the Sakhalin Island, Russian Federation, on 14 August 2016, at 11:17 a.m. UTC. The earthquake source was located west of the Central Sakhalin Fault Zone, which is considered to mark the boundary between the Okhotsk and Eurasian (Amurian) plates. Moment tensor solution of the mainshock as well as the configuration of aftershock cloud suggests that the earthquake was caused by slip on a SW-dipping reverse fault. For the first time for Sakhalin, we have got the felt reports unified in accordance with DYFI. We also analyzed observed PGA values and, based on them, produced shaking maps.
[en] Many authors have modeled regional earthquake interevent times using a gamma distribution, whereby data collapse occurs under a simple rescaling of the data from different regions or time periods. We show, using earthquake data and simulations, that the distribution is fundamentally a bimodal mixture distribution dominated by correlated aftershocks at short waiting times and independent events at longer times. The much-discussed power-law segment often arises as a crossover between these two. We explain the variation of the distribution with region size and show that it is not universal.