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[en] Different cut-offs have been proposed for left atrial (LA) size. Furthermore, conflicting results have been reported about the influence of age on LA size and data on the impact of age on LA myocardial function are scanty. The aim of this study was to derive references values for LA size and function in healthy subjects and to evaluate the impact of age. We conducted a systematic literature search of MEDLINE database. We included only studies evaluating healthy subjects, with age ranged between 18 and 80 years. Parameters were compared among four age groups, < 30, 30–45, > 45–60, > 60 years. Three hundred twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria and the final population consisted of 62,821 subjects. LA volume index (LAVi) did not differ among different age groups (p = 0.21). The normal upper limit of LAVi was 24 mL/m2. LA reservoir function, measured by strain, did not differ among age groups (38 ± 3%, 32–43%; p = 0.74). Left ventricular (LV) size and function were not different among groups, except LV mass index. A decrease in E/A ratio and an increase in E/e′ ratio were found with advancing age (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.001, respectively). In healthy subjects the normal upper limit of LAVi was lower than that recommended and is not influenced by advancing age. Furthermore, also LA function measured by strain was not affected by age. The current reference values of LAVi should be used with caution when applied to healthy subjects.
[en] Purpose: To determine the influence of measured comorbidity in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) combined modality therapy (CMT) study enrollment in Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: One hundred and seventy-one patients with a Karnofsky Performance Score ≥70 and clinical Stage III NSCLC were analyzed retrospectively for comorbidity, RTOG study eligibility, and enrollment at initial consultation. Effect of comorbidity scores (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale) were tested on patient selection for CMT, RTOG enrollment, and overall survival. Results: Comorbidity (Grade 4; p < 0.005) and use of radiation only (p ≤ 0.001) were associated with inferior survival independent of other factors. Patient selection for CMT was affected by age (≥70, p < 0.001), comorbidity (severity index [SI] > 2, p = 0.001), and weight loss (>5%, p = 0.001). Thirty-three patients (19%) were enrolled in a CMT RTOG study (Group 1). Forty-nine patients (29%) were eligible but not enrolled (Group 2), and 57 (33%) were ineligible (Group 3). The most common ineligibility reasons were weight loss (67%) and comorbidity in the exclusion criteria of the RTOG studies (63%). Group 1 patients were the youngest (p = 0.02), with the lowest comorbidity scores (p < 0.001) and SI (p < 0.001) compared with Groups 2 and 3. Group 3 patients were the oldest with the most unfavorable comorbidity profile. Comorbidity scores (SI >2; p = 0.006) and age (≥70; p = 0.05) were independent factors influencing RTOG study enrollment in patients meeting study eligibility requirements (Groups 1 and 2). Conclusions: Comorbidity scales could be useful in stratification of patients in advanced lung cancer trials and interpretation of results particularly regarding the elderly population.
[en] The frequent anatomical variations of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) course should be considered prior to any treatment in this area. The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) as it appears in the archived CBCT images of the mandible. This cross- sectional study evaluated a sample of 156 CBCT examinations. The pattern of the IAC was evaluated and the prevalence of different patterns according to age and gender were recorded. In order to find the frequency of mandibular canal type among different ages, the patients were put into the three age groups (20–29, 30–44 and 45–59).The data were analyzed using Chi-square test and the significance level was set as p≤.05. Out of 156 patients, 52 canals was straight type, 52 had Catenary type and 52 of them were presented with Progressive descending type. There was not statistically significant difference between two genders (Pv=0.092). According to the type of the IAC course, there was a not statistically significant difference between the three age groups (Pv=0.32). Cone beam computed tomography is a useful method for precise assessment of the IAC course
[en] Introduction: Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) is defined as bleeding that occurs after 1 year of amenorrhea in a woman who is not receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT). About 10% of women with postmenopausal bleeding have a primary or secondary malignancy. Common malignancies among them are endometrial cancer (80%), cervical cancer or an ovarian tumour. Endometrial cancer is the second most common cancer associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Ninety percent of patients have benign causes. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of endometrial carcinoma in patients with post-menopausal bleeding. Study Design: Descriptive case series study. Setting: Department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Lady Willingdon, Lahore. Duration of Study: This study was conducted over a period of six months from January, 1 2009 to June 30, 2009. Subjects and Methods: 50 cases with postmenopausal bleeding. Results: During the period of this study a total number of 50 consecutive patients who met inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Ages of the patients who presented with PMB ranged between 48 years and 80 years with a mean age of 59 years. Malignancy was found in 18 out of 50 cases (36%).Cases with endometrial CA were 14 out of 50 cases (28%) and CA cervix constituted 4 out of 50 cases (8%). Benign pathology was more frequent (64%). 13 of 50 cases (26%) had hyperplasia out of which 1 case (2%) was of atypical hyperplasia. Endometrial polyp was found in 4 of 50 cases (8%). 3 of 50 cases (6%) had chronic endometritis. 5 of 50 cases (10%) had chronic cervicitis. While 7 cases (14%) had postmenopausal bleeding due to decubitus ulcer of uterovaginal prolapse. Among malignancies (36%), endometrial cancer is the most frequent malignancy in women with postmenopausal bleeding with mean age of 65 years. Conclusion: In this study it was concluded that the majority of cases of PMB would be expected to be suffering from benign problems. The main aim of evaluation of cases of PMB is to exclude or identify endometrial or cervical carcinoma and atypical endometrial hyperplasia. (author)
[en] The incidence of non melanoma skin cancer has permanently increasing tendency in populations of European origin. The similar situation is in Slovakia too. It is the most frequent cancer in Caucasian. The UVR is considered as the most important factor for development of such diseases. UV exposure leads to the generation of alterations in nuclear genes such as the p53 tumour suppressor gene as well as in the other genome in the cell - namely mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Except traditional surgical treatment, noninvasive treatment modalities are increasingly used, namely for superficial lesions.Together with them, also markant development of new noninvasive diagnostic technologies was observed in the last decade.The shift from the older age groups to the younger ones, forced us to give increased attention to this problem. (author)
[en] The incidence of childhood leukaemia in Hungary has yet to be reported, although data are available since the early 70s. The Hungarian data therefore cover the time before and after the Chernobyl nuclear accident (1986). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Chernobyl accident on childhood leukaemia incidence in Hungary. A population-based study was carried out using data of the National Paediatric Cancer Registry of Hungary from 1973 to 2002. The total number of cases was 2204. To test the effect of the Chernobyl accident the authors applied a new approach called 'Hypothesized Impact Period Interpolation'-model, which takes into account the increasing trend of childhood leukaemia incidence and the hypothesized exposure and latency times. The incidence of leukaemia in the age group 0-14 varied between 33.2 and 39.4 per million person-years along the observed 30 year period, and the incidence of childhood leukaemia showed a moderate increase of 0.71% annually (p=0.0105). In the period of the hypothesized impact of the Chernobyl accident the incidence rate was elevated by 2.5% (95% CI: -8.1%; +14.3%), but this change was not statistically significant (p=0.663). The age standardised incidence, the age distribution, the gender ratio, and the magnitude of increasing trend of childhood leukaemia incidence in Hungary were similar to other European countries. Applying the presented interpolation method the authors did not find a statistically significant increase in the leukaemia incidence in the period of the hypothesized impact of the Chernobyl accident
[en] This Objective of this study was to see histologic typing of prostate cancer and its relation to patient's age, as no curative therapy exists for the advanced stages. This is a retrospective study of 50 patients suffering from prostatic adenocarcinoma and admitted at Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center Karachi. A total of fifty patients between ages of 50-80 years diagnosed during the period of 1990-2001 suffering from prostate cancer were included in this study. The result showed that maximum number of tumours were in age group ranging from 61-70 years, (58% of total cases). Sixteen were (32%) well-differentiated tumours, twenty-eight (56%), moderately differentiated tumours and six (12%) were labelled as undifferentiated tumours. It was concluded that the majority of tumors were moderately differentiated tumours. Early diagnosis is useful for patients; because high grade tumours have bad prognostic markers. (author)