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[en] This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users
[en] The objective of Phase I was to explore the feasibility of the development of a new solid state refrigeration technology - magnetic refrigeration - in order to reduce power consumption of a vehicle air conditioner by 30%. The feasibility study was performed at Iowa State University (ISU) together with Astronautics Corporation of America Technology Center (ACATC), Madison, WI, through a subcontract with ISU
[en] We investigated the corrosion resistance of Zn and Cu coated steel pipes as a substitute for Cu pipe in an air-conditioner system. In addition, the galvanic corrosion tendency between two dissimilar metal parts was studied. The corrosion resistance of the Cu electroplated steel was similar to that of Cu, while the corrosion rate of the Zn electro-galvanized and the galvalume (Zn-55 % Al) coated steels was much higher and not suitable for Cu substitute in artificial sea water and acidic rain environments. Furthermore, the galvanic difference between Cu electroplated steel and Cu was so small that the Cu coated steel pipe can be used as a substitute for Cu pipe in an air-conditioner system
[en] For the Danish solar heating industries it is interesting to discuss the domestic market possibilities and the export possibilities for solar heating cooling systems. The Danish solar heating sector also wants to participate in the international collaboration within IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Task 25 'Solar Assisted Air Conditioning of Buildings'. The Danish Energy Agency therefore has granted means for this project to discuss: The price of cooling for 3 different solar cooling methods (absorption cooling, desiccant cooling and ejector cooling); Market possibilities in Denmark and abroad; The advantages by Danish participation in IEA Task 25. The task has been solved through literature studies to establish status for the 3 technologies. It turned out that ejector cooling by low temperatures (85 deg. C from the solar collector) exists as pilot plants in relation to district heating, but is still not commercial accessible. Desiccant cooling, where the supplied heat has temperatures down to 55 deg. C is a well-developed technology. However only a handful of pilot plants with solar heating exists, and thus optimization relating to operation strategy and economy is on the experimental stage. Absorption cooling plants driven by solar heating are found in a large number in Japan and are also demonstrated in several other countries. The combination of absorption heating pump and solar heating is considered to be commercial accessible. Solar heating is interesting as heat source of to the extent that it can replace other sources of heat without the economy being depreciated. This can be the case in South Europe if: 1) oil or natural gas is used for heating; 2) a solar heating system already exists, e.g. for domestic water supply, and is installed so that the marginal costs by solar heating supply of the ventilation plant is reduced. All in all the above conditions mean that the market for solar heating for cooling is very limited in Europe, where almost everybody are connected to the electric power network and where the effect tax, except in certain German areas, is low. Should a European market for solar cooling be developed a conscious policy is required, which rewards effect savings. Because of the non-existing domestic market and the diffuse European market possibilities active Danish participation in IEA Task 25 it is not recommended. (EHS)
[en] Highlights: • The performance of an R410A air-conditioner adopting a DEEC. • The effects of operating parameters on the COP and CSPF. • Optimized mixing section diameter of the ejector. • The maximum limit of the entrainment ratio (ER). - Abstract: Even though a dual evaporator ejector cycle (DEEC) offers several advantages over a standard two-phase ejector cycle, few experimental investigations of the performance of the DEEC are available in the literature. This study presents the performance characteristics of an R410A air-conditioner adopted with a DEEC under various operating conditions and ejector geometries. The COP of the DEEC decreased with an increase in entrainment ratio (ER) due to the decrease in pressure lifting ratio. For the optimum ER, the effectiveness of the DEEC increased with an increase in compressor speed with a larger total mass flow rate. The optimum mixing section diameter was determined to be 5 mm based on the cooling seasonal performance factor (CSPF) and CSPFbin of the DEEC. The maximum allowable limit for the ER was also suggested to be 0.3. In addition, the CSPF of the DEEC was 6.3% higher than that of the baseline cycle at an ER of 0.1.
[en] The thermal comfort control of a room must consider not only the thermal comfort level but also energy saving. This paper proposes an enthalpy estimation that is conducive for thermal comfort control and energy saving. The least enthalpy estimator (LEE) combines the concept of human thermal comfort with the theory of enthalpy to predict the load for a suitable setting pair in order to maintain more precisely the thermal comfort level and save energy in the air conditioning system
[en] A Study of Noise has been carried out in 17 private offices, with window-type room air-conditioners, to assess noise levels in these offices. A-Weighted equivalent sound-pressure levels (dB(A) LAeq) and equivalent octave-band sound-pressure levels (dB Leq) were measured in each office, and Preferred Speech Interference Levels (PSIL) evaluated. The results show that the interior noise-levels in these offices vary from 59.6 to 72.2 dB(A) LAeq. which are very high and much above the interior noise limits, recommended for offices by some individual workers. Some ways and means to limit its emission of high level of noise from the air conditioners are also discussed. (author)
[en] Highlights: •The performance of an ejector-expansion R410A air conditioner is measured. •The effect of ejector geometries on the COP and CSPF is analyzed. •The mixing-section diameter of the ejector is optimized based on the CSPF. •The mixing-section diameter is optimized based on the climatic conditions. -- Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ejector geometries on the performance of an ejector-expansion air conditioner (EEAC) considering the cooling seasonal performance factor (CSPF). The performance of the EEAC using R410A was measured and analyzed by varying the compressor speed, outdoor-bin temperature, operating pressures, nozzle-throat diameter, and mixing-section diameter. The EEAC in the medium-capacity mode exhibited maximum coefficient of performance (COP) improvement, i.e., 7.5%, over the baseline (conventional) cycle. The optimum mixing-section diameter was determined to be 9 mm based on the CSPF. In addition, the optimum mixing-section diameter increased with an increase in the annual average outdoor temperature. The CSPF of the EEAC with the optimized mixing-section diameter improved in the range of 16.0–20.3% over the baseline cycle depending on the climatic conditions.
[en] This paper focuses on an investigation of the proper capillary tube length for an inverter air conditioner. Air to air variable capacity systems with R-22 and R-407C were tested and modeled. First, the optimum refrigerant charge was determined for four capillary tubes at full load condition by varying the mass charge from 1.1 kg to 1.9 kg. The capillary tube lengths were 1.016 m, 0.914 m, 0.813 m and 0.711 m. The two zone model, the distributed model and the combined model were compared to estimate the optimal charge inventory. The combined model analysed a simple path evaporator, a complex path condenser with a two zone model and a distributed model, respectively. It obtained good agreement with experimental results for the system performances and the optimum mass charge. Furthermore, four capillary tubes with specific optimum mass charges were investigated at compressor frequencies in a range of 30-50 Hz. The R-22 capillary tube obtains the best performance with the addition length of 1.016 m at the lowest frequency. Especially, the length of 0.813 m with R-407C is the appropriate size at the operation frequency of 30-35 Hz. The base capillary tube of 0.914 m is optimum at other frequencies. The model prediction agrees with the experimental data in a range of 40-50 Hz
[en] The performance analysis of a solar absorption refrigerator operating in an autonomous way is investigated. The water/LiBr machine satisfies the air-conditioning needs along the day. The refrigerator performances were simulated regarding a dynamic model. For the solar driven absorption machines, two applications could be distinguished. The sun provides the thermal part of the useful energy. In this case, it is necessary to use additional energy as the electric one to activate the pumps, the fans and the control system. On the other hand, the sun provides all the necessary energy. Here, both photovoltaic cells and thermal concentrators should be used. The simulation in dynamic regime of the cycle requires the knowledge of the geometric characteristics of every component as the exchange areas and the internal volumes. Real characteristics of a refrigerator available at the applied thermodynamic research unit (ATRU) at the engineers' national school of Gabes are notified. The development of the thermal and matter balances in every component of the cycle has permitted to simulate in dynamic regime the performances of a solar absorption refrigerator operating with the water/LiBr couple for air-conditioning needs. The developed model could be used to perform intermittent refrigeration cycle autonomously driven. (author)