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[en] Building owners, designers and occupants need to consider all the design measures that contribute to high indoor air quality. Building occupants, furnishings, equipment, and ambient air pollution all contribute to surmounting indoor air quality concerns. However, these can be minimized by following HVAC design guidelines which promote high indoor air quality while maintaining reasonable energy-efficiency. The possible liabilities and loss of business productivity due to air quality problems are too great to ignore
[en] In recent years, air pollution has become a major concern that worries the world. This term of air pollution is used to describe undesirable substances that contribute to atmospheric pollution, causing degradation of air quality. This work aims to better understand air pollution by describing its pollutants, explaining their natural and anthropogenic sources and effects on human life and the environment and identifying its quality standards. (author)
[en] Currently, there are no air quality regulations in force in any part of the world to control number concentrations of airborne atmospheric nanoparticles (ANPs). This is partly due to a lack of reliable information on measurement methods, dispersion characteristics, modelling, health and other environmental impacts. Because of the special characteristics of manufactured (also termed engineered or synthesised) nanomaterials or nanoparticles (MNPs), a substantial increase is forecast for their manufacture and use, despite understanding of safe design and use, and health and environmental implications being in its early stage. This article discusses a number of underlining technical issues by comparing the properties and behaviour of MNPs with anthropogenically produced ANPs. Such a comparison is essential for the judicious treatment of the MNPs in any potential air quality regulatory framework for ANPs.
[en] Increasing incidents of regional pollution in China have threatened the well-being and physical and mental health of individuals. Therefore, the potential impact of air pollution on mental health must be assessed. This study examined the relationship between air pollution and mental health, as well as the regulatory effects of health behaviors. Air pollution was measured using the concentration of particulates with a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and mental health was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Using the China Family Panel Studies 2010 and 2014 data sets, the panel data regression model was employed to discuss the associations between air pollution and mental health and the interaction between air pollution and health behaviors on mental health. In total, 52 568 observations were collected. When the concentration of PM2.5 increased by 1 μg m−3, the CES-D scale scores decreased by 0.012 (95% CI: −0.021 to −0.003). Smoking was the only health behavior that made this effect more pronounced, its regulatory effect on the CES-D scale scores was −0.011 (95% CI: −0.021 to −0.002). The mental health of low-income individuals was also more vulnerable to the adverse effects of air pollution. This study highlights the potential impact of air pollution on mental health and the importance of health behaviors; it also provides suggestions for maintaining mental health and formulating policies based on changing air quality in the future. (letter)
[en] Satellite-based inverse modeling has the potential to drive aerosol precursor emissions, but its efficacy for improving chemistry transport models (CTMs) remains elusive because of its likely inherent dependence on the error characteristics of a specific CTM used for the inversion. This issue is quantitively assessed here by using three CTMs. We show that SO2 emissions from global GEOS-Chem adjoint model and OMI SO2 data, when combined with spatial variation of bottom-up emissions, can largely improve WRF-Chem and WRF-CMAQ forecast of SO2 and aerosol optical depth (in reference to moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer data) in China. This suggests that the efficacy of satellite-based inversion of SO2 emission appears to be high for CTMs that use similar or identical emission inventories. With the advent of geostationary air quality monitoring satellites in next 3 years, this study argues that an era of using top-down approach to rapidly update emission is emerging for regional air quality forecast, especially over Asia having highly varying emissions. (paper)
[en] Background: Significant mitigation efforts beyond the Nationally Determined Commitments (NDCs) coming out of the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement are required to avoid warming of 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures. Health co-benefits represent selected near term, positive consequences of climate policies that can offset mitigation costs in the short term before the beneficial impacts of those policies on the magnitude of climate change are evident. The diversity of approaches to modeling mitigation options and their health effects inhibits meta-analyses and syntheses of results useful in policy-making. Methods/Design: We evaluated the range of methods and choices in modeling health co-benefits of climate mitigation to identify opportunities for increased consistency and collaboration that could better inform policy-making. We reviewed studies quantifying the health co-benefits of climate change mitigation related to air quality, transportation, and diet published since the 2009 Lancet Commission ‘Managing the health effects of climate change’ through January 2017. We documented approaches, methods, scenarios, health-related exposures, and health outcomes. Results/Synthesis: Forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Air quality, transportation, and diet scenarios ranged from specific policy proposals to hypothetical scenarios, and from global recommendations to stakeholder-informed local guidance. Geographic and temporal scope as well as validity of scenarios determined policy relevance. More recent studies tended to use more sophisticated methods to address complexity in the relevant policy system. Discussion: Most studies indicated significant, nearer term, local ancillary health benefits providing impetus for policy uptake and net cost savings. However, studies were more suited to describing the interaction of climate policy and health and the magnitude of potential outcomes than to providing specific accurate estimates of health co-benefits. Modeling the health co-benefits of climate policy provides policy-relevant information when the scenarios are reasonable, relevant, and thorough, and the model adequately addresses complexity. Greater consistency in selected modeling choices across the health co-benefits of climate mitigation research would facilitate evaluation of mitigation options particularly as they apply to the NDCs and promote policy uptake. (topical review)
[en] Within the framework of the Innovation Program Air Quality (IPL) a contest has been organized for the market to find innovative solutions to reduce up-whirling fine particulates (dust) from pavements of national highways in the Netherlands
[nl]In het kader van het Innovatieprogramma Luchtkwaliteit (IPL), uitgevoerd door Rijkswaterstaat, is een prijsvraag uitgeschreven voor marktpartijen om innovatieve oplossingen te vinden om het opwervelen van fijn stof op wegdekken van rijkswegen tegen te gaan
[en] On August 1st 2009 the National Coordinated Research Programme for Air quality (NSL in Dutch) entered into operation. This programme must help improve air quality such that it meets the European standards. At the same time the deadlock between environment and space is also solved. A special approach has been chosen for this purpose, which is based on a common interest of the State, provinces and local authorities. It was an intensive and interesting process. The annual monitoring will have to show whether or not the NSL will meet its objectives.
[nl]Op 1 augustus 2009 is het Nationaal Samenwerkingsprogramma Luchtkwaliteit (NSL) in werking getreden. Met dit programma moet de komende jaren de luchtkwaliteit zodanig worden verbeterd dat de Europese normen worden gehaald. Tegelijk wordt de impasse tussen milieu en ruimte opgelost. Hiervoor is een bijzondere aanpak gekozen, die gebaseerd is op een gezamenlijk belang van Rijk, provincies en gemeenten. Het was een intensief en interessant proces. Uit de jaarlijkse monitoring zal blijken of het NSL aan zijn doelen zal voldoen.
[en] There was a dramatic increase in aerosol loading in China after the 1960s due to rapid industrialization, followed by a gradual reduction due to improvements in air quality since the early 2000s. They are deemed to be the main cause of ‘dimming’ and ‘brightening’ in China, respectively. China, therefore, provides an ideal testbed to investigate the multi-decadal evolution of clouds under a background of large variations in the amount of atmospheric aerosols. We used a unique combination of long-term in-situ observational records combined with a radiative transfer model to investigate the changes in clouds and aerosols over the last 60 years (1958–2018) over China. We found during the dimming period, the clouds over China shrunk in area steadily, gradually thinned in terms of optical depth, and thereby blocked less and less solar radiation. This situation reversed during the brightening period. The clouds over China showed a quick expansion in extent and thickening in terms of optical depth, and accordingly the amounts of solar radiation blocked by clouds recovered rapidly. It is observationally demonstrated that high levels of pollution and the associated amount of aerosols cause a suppression of cloud growth and a reduction of optical depth. (letter)