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[en] This report contains a description and general instructions for the installation and use of the ''Gent'' Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) PM10 sampler. The sampler operates at a flow rate of 16 litres per min. It collects particulates which have an equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD) of less than 10 μm in separate ''coarse'' (2-10 μm EAD) and ''fine'' (<2 μm EAD) size fractions on two sequential 47 mm diameter Nuclepore filters. The discrimination against the >10 μm EAD particles is accomplished by a PM10 pre-impaction stage upstream of the stacked filter cassette. The air is drawn through the sampler by means of a diaphragm vacuum pump, which is enclosed in a special housing together with a needle valve, vacuum gauge, flow meter, volume meter, time switch (for interrupted sampling) and hour meter. A list of manufacturers of the various components of the sampler is also given. (author). 4 figs, 1 tab
[en] A method for presenting the health impact of emissions from furniture is introduced, which could be used in the context of environmental product declarations. The health impact is described by the negative indoor air quality potential, the carcinogenic potential, the mutagenic and reprotoxic potential, the allergenic potential, and the toxicological potential. An experimental study of emissions from four pieces of furniture is performed by testing both the materials used for production of the furniture and the complete piece of furniture, in order to compare the results gained by adding emissions of material with results gained from testing the finished piece of furniture. Calculating the emission from a product based on the emission from materials used in the manufacture of the product is a new idea. The relation between calculated results and measured results from the same products differ between the four pieces of furniture tested. Large differences between measured and calculated values are seen for leather products. More knowledge is needed to understand why these differences arise. Testing materials allows us to compare different suppliers of the same material. Four different foams and three different timber materials are tested, and the results vary between materials of the same type. If the manufacturer possesses this type of knowledge of the materials from the subcontractors it could be used as a selection criterion according to production of low emission products. -- Highlights: • A method for presenting health impact of emissions is introduced. • An experimental study of emissions from four pieces of furniture is performed. • Health impact is calculated based on sum of contribution from the materials used. • Calculated health impact is compared to health impact of the manufactured product. • The results show that health impact could be useful in product development and for presentation in EPDs
[en] We apply a simple statistical bias correction technique (empirical quantile mapping) to a long-term dataset of air quality forecasts over Europe and Italy. We used the WRF-CHIMERE modelling system, which provides operational experimental chemical weather forecast at CETEMPS (http://pumpkin.aquila.infn.it/forechem/), to simulate the years 2008-2012 at low resolution over Europe (0.5° x 0.5°) and moderate resolution over Italy (0.15° x 0.15°). We compared the simulated dataset with available observation from the European Environmental Agency database (AirBase) and characterized model skill and compliance with EU legislation using the Delta tool from FAIRMODE project (http://fairmode.jrc.ec.europa.eu/). We found that the model is generally positively biased for ozone (~50%), and negatively biased for PM10 (~50%). We show that a calibration period on 3 years of data is sufficient to greatly improve model skills and make it compliant with current European regulation. The corrected simulation is thus more reliable for operational air quality forecast and for health impact assessment.
[en] One of the important sources of air pollution and greenhouse gases is mining industry together with oil refinery. Silesia Upper Coal Basin comprise of 29 mines and 2 refineries accompanied by large steel industry and energy sector facilities. The area was directly investigated with mobile platforms under the MEMO2 project resulting of spatiotemporal map of particular sources with 3D concentration of methane, carbon dioxide, PM2.5 and PM10. Gaussian modelling applied for validation of bottom up estimates indicated large discrepancies between reported and modelled values basing on measurement results.
[en] We tested the performance in the laboratory and in the field of 24 commercial platforms (AQMesh). In carrying out this evaluation, we identified a main technical challenge associated with current commercial low-cost sensors, regarding the sensor robustness and measurement repeatability. Our results show that laboratory calibration is not able to correct for real world conditions and that it is necessary to perform a field calibration for each sensor individually. Despite that, we observed that currently some sensors are already capable of reproducing the NO2 and PM10 variability. The data from the sensors was employed to generate detailed NO2 and PM10 air quality maps using a data fusion technique. This way we were able to offer localized air quality information for the city of Oslo.
[en] Air pollution, responsible for 1 in 8 premature deaths worldwide, is the major environmental threat to humanhealth. Quantitative health impact assessments of hypothetic changes in air pollution can be a support for governments when they design policies to reduce health effects of air pollution. This study estimates health impacts attributable to a hypothetical decrease in PM2.5 and NO2 exposure in Malmö Municipality in Southern Sweden, for the year 2016, corresponding to transports free of exhausts in the municipality.
[en] The main objective of this study is to numerically investigate the dispersion of pollutants of stack emissions on the building roof with various atmospheric stabilities, (stable, neutral and unstable). The three-dimensional flow and dispersal of gaseous pollutants were modelled using a computational fluid dynamics model. Computational simulations were conducted using an isolated cubical building model. The diffusion flow fields in the building-up environment were examined with three atmospheric stabilities: (1) stable condition, (2) neutral condition, and (3) stable condition. Atmospheric dispersion was examined at different distances downwind of the leeward side of the cubical building. The numerical data was validated against wind-tunnel data to optimize the turbulence model. The numerical results agreed reasonably with the wind tunnel results. The results indicate that there is an increase in concentrations with stable conditions, and a decrease in concentrations with unstable conditions in the wake region.
[en] We used GFS, FNL and Reanalysis 2 data from NCEP, for modeling the dispersion of volcanic ash during 4 eruptions which took place in Ecuador during the last 6 years. Unexpectedly, the performance decreased when using the Reanalysis 2 data. It suggests that, for this kind of studies in this region, it is advisable the use of GFS or FNL rather than Reanalysis 2 data.
[en] The impact of cities and urban surfaces on weather, climate, and air-quality, is often assessed using modeling approach. In regional scale models, an urban parameterization in land-surface interactions can be included. This is especially important when going to higher resolution, which is common trend both in operational weather prediction and regional climate modelling as well as in coupled chemistry-transport modelling. However, model description of urban canopy related meteorological effects can significantly differ especially in the underlying surface models and the urban canopy parameterizations, which results in a certain uncertainty. To assess this uncertainty is important for adaptation and mitigation measures of the urban effects, which is often applied in the big cities, especially in connection to climate change perspective, but it is important in operational prediction as well. This is one of the main task of the project OP-PPR Proof of Concept UK as well as project Urbi Pragensi, where in addition to climate effects air-quality control aspects are studied. Effects of cities on urban and rural areas are evaluated, the impact of complexity of urban parameterization on the model results improvement is discussed with regard to demands on computational resources as well.