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[en] A unique cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) liquid crystal (LC) biosensor, based on the disruption of orientation in LCs, is developed for cholesterol detection. A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of Dimethyloctadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride (DMOAP) and (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxy-silane (APTMS) is prepared on a glass plate by adsorption. The enzyme (ChOx) is immobilized on SAM surface for 12 h before utilizing the film for biosensing purpose. LC based biosensing study is conducted on SAM/ChOx/LC (5CB) cells for cholesterol concentrations ranging from 10 mg/dl to 250 mg/dl. The sensing mechanism has been verified through polarizing optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and spectrometric techniques
[en] In this paper, superhydrophobic and antibacterial fabric is fabricated via the sequential deposition of polydopamine (PDA), quaternized nanosilica particles and hexadecyltrimethoxy silane (HDTMS). The epoxypropyl dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (EPDDAC)-modified silica particles simultaneously contributed to the antibacterial activity and generated a rough surface on the textiles. According to the results, the obtained fabric showed excellent superhydrophobicity, good washability, and high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.
[en] Phase behavior for the mixed aqueous surfactant systems of cationic octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (OTAC)/anionic ammonium dodecyl sulfate (ADS)/water was examined. Below the total surfactant concentrations of 1.5 m molal, mixed micelles were formed. At the total surfactant concentrations higher than 1.5 m molal, there appeared a region where mixed micelles and vesicles coexist. As the surfactant concentration increased, the systems looked very turbid and much more vesicles were observed. The vesicles were spontaneously formed in this system and their existence was observed by negative-staining transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and encapsulation efficiency of dye. The vesicle region was where the molar fraction α of ADS to the total mixed surfactant was from 0.1 to 0.7 and the total surfactant concentration was above 5 x 10-4 molality. The size and structure of the vesicles were determined from the TEM microphotographs and the SANS data. Their diameter ranged from 450 nm to 120 μm and decreased with increasing total surfactant concentration. The lamellar thickness also decreased from 15 nm to 5 nm with increasing surfactant concentration and this may be responsible for the decrease in vesicle size with the surfactant concentration. The stability of vesicles was examined by UV spectroscopy and zeta potentiometry. The vesicles dIsplayed long-term stability, as UV absorbance spectra remained unchanged over two months. The zeta potentials of the vesicles were large in magnitude (40-70 mV) and the observed longterm stability of the vesicles may be attributed to such high ζ potentials
[en] Diethyl 3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate was efficiently synthesized via the O-alkylation of disodium salt of diethyl 3,4-dihydroxy thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate with 1,2-dichloroethane over ionic type phase transfer catalysts, such as tetrabutyl ammonium bromide and benzyl triethyl ammonium chloride. The ionic type phase transfer catalysts showed higher catalytic activities than the nonionic type phase transfer catalysts, such as triethylamine, pyridine, 18-crown-6, and polyethylene glycol 400/600, in the O-alkylation reaction. The conversion of the disodium salt of more than 97% and the selectivity of diethyl 3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate of more than 98% were achieved when the O-alkylation reaction was synergistically catalyzed by tetrabutyl ammonium bromide and potassium iodide
[en] For high resolution alpha-spectrometric studies, the sources of alpha-emitting actinides are generally prepared by electrodeposition. Usually, by electrodeposition of only one element can be achieved quantitatively. A method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative electrodeposition of plutonium and americium, in two hours using 0.005M oxalic acid with saturated ammonium chloride. The alpha-spectral characteristics of sources prepared by this method were better than those prepared by the drop deposition method. This electrodeposition procedure was validated with nuclear fuel samples containing plutonium and americium. (author)
[en] Immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) could provide an unlimited supply of hepatocytes, but insufficient differentiation and phenotypic instability restrict their clinical application. This study aimed to determine the role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A) in hepatic differentiation of IHH, and whether encapsulation of IHH overexpressing HNF4A could improve liver function and survival in rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Primary human hepatocytes were transduced with lentivirus-mediated catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish IHH. Cells were analyzed for telomerase activity, proliferative capacity, hepatocyte markers, and tumorigenicity (c-myc) expression. Hepatocyte markers, hepatocellular functions, and morphology were studied in the HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. Hepatocyte markers and karyotype analysis were completed in the primary hepatocytes using shRNA knockdown of HNF4A. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin was assessed. Rat models of ALF were treated with encapsulated IHH or HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. A HNF4A-positive IHH line was established, which was non-tumorigenic and conserved properties of primary hepatocytes. HNF4A overexpression significantly enhanced mRNA levels of genes related to hepatic differentiation in IHH. Urea levels were increased by the overexpression of HNF4A, as measured 24 h after ammonium chloride addition, similar to that of primary hepatocytes. Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in primary hepatocytes transfected with HNF4A shRNA. HNF4α overexpression could significantly promote β-catenin activation. Transplantation of HNF4A overexpressing IHH resulted in better liver function and survival of rats with ALF compared with IHH. HNF4A improved hepatic differentiation of IHH. Transplantation of HNF4A-overexpressing IHH could improve the liver function and survival in a rat model of ALF. - Highlights: • Immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) could provide an unlimited supply of hepatocytes. • Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A) plays a role in hepatic differentiation. • HNF4A improved hepatic differentiation of IHH. • Transplantation of HNF4A-overexpressing IHH could improve liver function.
[en] The regiospecific intramolecular nucleophilic ring opening (INRO) of 2-azetidinones through ultrasound-mediated indium metal/ammonium chloride-induced reduction of aromatic nitro functionality has been achieved at ambient temperature. This method has provided an efficient entry for the facile synthesis of benzo-oxazine-2-one derivatives in aqueous ethanol. (author)
[en] The present study is concerned with the isolation and screening of Mucor species for the production of acid protease in shake flasks. Out of eight mould cultures evaluated, five were isolated from soil and three were provided from the Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Government College University, Lahore. Of all the isolates tested, Mucor pusillus IHS6 was found to be the best producer of rennin-like acid protease producing 75 U/ml of the enzyme. Different agricultural byproducts were evaluated as fermentation substrates and maximum enzyme synthesis (61 U/ml) was obtained when rapeseed meal was used as a substrate. Optimum pH and fermentation period for the production of protease were 5.5 (56U/ml) and 72 hrs (55U/ml), respectively. The production of protease by Mucor pusillus IHS6 was also studied by adding different carbon and nitrogen sources to the fermentation medium. Fructose at a concentration of 1.5% (66 U/ml) and yeast extract at a concentration of 2% (68.2 U/ml) and ammonium chloride at a concentration of 0.1% (67U/ml) were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen (organic and inorganic) sources respectively. Spore inoculum at a concentration of 1% (68.4 U/ml) was found to be the best for protease production by Mucor pusillus. The fermentation broth was found to have strong milk clotting activity with 200 RU. (author)